Gene Symbol: basR
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with BasS
Alias: ECK4106, JW4074, pmrA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Hagiwara D, Yamashino T, Mizuno T. A Genome-wide view of the Escherichia coli BasS-BasR two-component system implicated in iron-responses. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:1758-67 pubmed
    ..Here we characterized the BasS-BasR two-component system with reference to its physiological function, taking genetic approaches together with genome-..
  2. Yamamoto K, Hirao K, Oshima T, Aiba H, Utsumi R, Ishihama A. Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1448-56 pubmed
    ..HKs (BaeS, BasS, CreC, CusS, HydH, RstB, YedV, and YfhK), and a total of 34 RRs, including putative RRs (BaeR, BasR, CreB, CusR, HydG, RstA, YedW, YfhA, YgeK, and YhjB), have been suggested to exist in Escherichia coli...
  3. Lee L, Barrett J, Poole R. Genome-wide transcriptional response of chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli to zinc. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1124-34 pubmed
    ..gene), asr (encoding an acid shock-inducible periplasmic protein), cpxP (a periplasmic chaperone gene), and basR. Five up-regulated genes, basR and basS [encoding a sensor-regulator implicated in Salmonella in Fe(III) sensing ..
  4. Gibbons H, Kalb S, Cotter R, Raetz C. Role of Mg2+ and pH in the modification of Salmonella lipid A after endocytosis by macrophage tumour cells. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:425-40 pubmed publisher
    ..modified with additional acyl and/or polar substituents in response to activation of the PhoP/PhoQ and/or PmrA/PmrB signalling systems, which are induced by growth at low Mg2+ concentrations and mild acid pH respectively...
  5. Winfield M, Groisman E. Phenotypic differences between Salmonella and Escherichia coli resulting from the disparate regulation of homologous genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17162-7 pubmed
    ..In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, the PmrA/PmrB two-component system governing polymyxin B resistance is induced in low Mg(2+) in a process that requires the ..
  6. Zhou Z, Lin S, Cotter R, Raetz C. Lipid A modifications characteristic of Salmonella typhimurium are induced by NH4VO3 in Escherichia coli K12. Detection of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, phosphoethanolamine and palmitate. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18503-14 pubmed
    ..coli K12 are the same as many of those normally found in untreated Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella minnesota, demonstrating that E. coli K12 has latent enzyme systems for synthesizing these important derivatives. ..
  7. Kox L, Wösten M, Groisman E. A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system. EMBO J. 2000;19:1861-72 pubmed
    The PmrA-PmrB two-component system of Salmonella enterica controls resistance to the peptide antibiotic polymyxin B and to several antimicrobial proteins from human neutrophils...
  8. Trent M, Ribeiro A, Doerrler W, Lin S, Cotter R, Raetz C. Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: structural characterization and transfer to lipid A in the periplasm. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43132-44 pubmed
    ..We now report the purification of this lipid from a pss(-) pmrA(C) mutant of E. coli and assign its structure as undecaprenyl phosphate-alpha-l-Ara4N. Approximately 0...
  9. Chamnongpol S, Dodson W, Cromie M, Harris Z, Groisman E. Fe(III)-mediated cellular toxicity. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:711-9 pubmed
    ..strains of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae defective in the Fe(III)-responding PmrA/PmrB signal transduction system...

More Information


  1. Fu W, Yang F, Kang X, Zhang X, Li Y, Xia B, et al. First structure of the polymyxin resistance proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:1033-7 pubmed
    b>PmrA/PmrB and PhoP/PhoQ are a pair of two-component systems (TCSs) that allow the Gram-negative bacteria to survive the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. The two TCSs are linked by the polymyxin resistance protein, PmrD...
  2. Ogasawara H, Shinohara S, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A. Novel regulation targets of the metal-response BasS-BasR two-component system of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2012;158:1482-92 pubmed publisher
    The BasS-BasR two-component system is known as an iron- and zinc-sensing transcription regulator in Escherichia coli, but so far only a few genes have been identified to be under the direct control of phosphorylated BasR...
  3. Herrera C, Hankins J, Trent M. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1444-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These modifications are controlled by the PmrA transcriptional regulator and confer resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides, including polymyxin...
  4. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  5. Kato A, Latifi T, Groisman E. Closing the loop: the PmrA/PmrB two-component system negatively controls expression of its posttranscriptional activator PmrD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4706-11 pubmed
    ..The low-Mg(2+) activation requires pmrD, a PhoPPhoQ-activated gene that activates the response regulator PmrA at a posttranscriptional level. We now report that pmrD expression is negatively regulated by the PmrAPmrB system...
  6. Groisman E, Kayser J, Soncini F. Regulation of polymyxin resistance and adaptation to low-Mg2+ environments. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7040-5 pubmed
    The PmrA-PmrB two-component system of Salmonella typhimurium controls resistance to the peptide antibiotic polymyxin B and to several antimicrobial proteins from human neutrophils...
  7. Roland K, Martin L, Esther C, Spitznagel J. Spontaneous pmrA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 define a new two-component regulatory system with a possible role in virulence. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4154-64 pubmed
    We isolated spontaneous mutations (pmrA) in the smooth strain Salmonella typhimurium LT2 that show increased resistance to the cationic antibacterial proteins of human neutrophils and to the drug polymyxin B...
  8. Nagasawa S, Ishige K, Mizuno T. Novel members of the two-component signal transduction genes in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1993;114:350-7 pubmed
    ..pSN25) is located around 93 min of the genetic map, that also comprises two adjacent coding-sequences (basS and basR)...
  9. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  10. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  11. Roland K, Spitznagel J. Molecular genetics of polymyxin resistance in Salmonella typhimurium. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;392:3-14 pubmed
    ..and CAP are conferred by a point mutation, pmrA505, in position 81 that results in an Arg to His substitution in pmrA, a regulator protein. The protein, pmrB is expressed in the cell membrane...
  12. Warner D, Duval V, Levy S. The contribution of PmrAB to the virulence of a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Virulence. 2013;4:634-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a role for this two-component regulatory system in the virulence of E. coli in a murine pyelonephritis model. ..
  13. Froelich J, Tran K, Wall D. A pmrA constitutive mutant sensitizes Escherichia coli to deoxycholic acid. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1180-3 pubmed
    ..Mapping and sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation at codon 53 within the pmrA (basR) gene that results in a G-to-V substitution...
  14. Guckes K, Kostakioti M, Breland E, Gu A, Shaffer C, Martinez C, et al. Strong cross-system interactions drive the activation of the QseB response regulator in the absence of its cognate sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to PmrB activating QseB on the protein level, we found that the PmrA response regulator contributes to qseB transcription in the absence of QseC and PmrA specifically binds the qseBC ..
  15. Guckes K, Breland E, Zhang E, Hanks S, Gill N, Algood H, et al. Signaling by two-component system noncognate partners promotes intrinsic tolerance to polymyxin B in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Ferric iron induced the histidine kinase PmrB to phosphotransfer to both its cognate response regulator PmrA and the noncognate response regulator QseB, leading to transcriptional responses coordinated by both regulators...
  16. Groisman E. The pleiotropic two-component regulatory system PhoP-PhoQ. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1835-42 pubmed
  17. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  18. Nummila K, Kilpelainen I, Zahringer U, Vaara M, Helander I. Lipopolysaccharides of polymyxin B-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli are extensively substituted by 2-aminoethyl pyrophosphate and contain aminoarabinose in lipid A. Mol Microbiol. 1995;16:271-8 pubmed
    ..Thus the polymyxin resistance was shown to be associated, along with the esterification of the lipid A 4'-monophosphate by aminoarabinose, with extensive esterification of diphosphates in LPS by 2-aminoethanol. ..
  19. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...