Gene Symbol: baeR
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with BaeS
Alias: ECK2075, JW2064
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Raffa R, Raivio T. A third envelope stress signal transduction pathway in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:1599-611 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the BaeS sensor kinase and BaeR response regulator also control expression of spy in response to envelope stress...
  2. Yamamoto K, Hirao K, Oshima T, Aiba H, Utsumi R, Ishihama A. Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1448-56 pubmed
    ..putative HKs (BaeS, BasS, CreC, CusS, HydH, RstB, YedV, and YfhK), and a total of 34 RRs, including putative RRs (BaeR, BasR, CreB, CusR, HydG, RstA, YedW, YfhA, YgeK, and YhjB), have been suggested to exist in Escherichia coli...
  3. Hirakawa H, Inazumi Y, Masaki T, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. Indole induces the expression of multidrug exporter genes in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1113-26 pubmed
    ..b>BaeR and CpxR directly bound to different sequences of the acrD and mdtA promoter regions...
  4. Nagakubo S, Nishino K, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. The putative response regulator BaeR stimulates multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli via a novel multidrug exporter system, MdtABC. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4161-7 pubmed
    Overproduction of the response regulator BaeR confers resistance to novobiocin and bile salts in a DeltaacrAB mutant by stimulating drug exporter gene expression...
  5. Nishino K, Honda T, Yamaguchi A. Genome-wide analyses of Escherichia coli gene expression responsive to the BaeSR two-component regulatory system. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1763-72 pubmed
    ..To understand the whole picture of BaeSR regulation, a DNA microarray analysis of the effect of BaeR overproduction was performed...
  6. Yamamoto K, Ogasawara H, Ishihama A. Involvement of multiple transcription factors for metal-induced spy gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 2008;133:196-200 pubmed
    ..Using DNase-I footprinting assay, we identified two BaeR-binding regions on the spy promoter with a direct repeat of the BaeR-box sequence, TCTNCANAA...
  7. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  8. Nagasawa S, Ishige K, Mizuno T. Novel members of the two-component signal transduction genes in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1993;114:350-7 pubmed
    ..coli genetic map, that contains two adjacent coding-sequences (baeS and baeR)...
  9. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. ..

More Information


  1. Baranova N, Nikaido H. The baeSR two-component regulatory system activates transcription of the yegMNOB (mdtABCD) transporter gene cluster in Escherichia coli and increases its resistance to novobiocin and deoxycholate. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4168-76 pubmed
    ..novobiocin resistance of a hypersusceptible (Delta)acrAB mutant resulted in the isolation of a plasmid containing baeR, which codes for the response regulator of the two-component regulatory system BaeSR...
  2. Zoetendal E, Smith A, Sundset M, Mackie R. The BaeSR two-component regulatory system mediates resistance to condensed tannins in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:535-9 pubmed
    ..BaeSR mutants were more tannin sensitive than their wild-type counterparts. ..
  3. Hirakawa H, Nishino K, Yamada J, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. Beta-lactam resistance modulated by the overexpression of response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:576-82 pubmed
    ..MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. Thirteen response regulators out of 32 genes, namely baeR, cheY, cpxR, creB, evgA, fimZ, narL, ompR, rcsB, rstA, yedW, yehT and dcuR, conferred increased beta-lactam ..
  4. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  5. Davidge K, Sanguinetti G, Yee C, Cox A, McLeod C, Monk C, et al. Carbon monoxide-releasing antibacterial molecules target respiration and global transcriptional regulators. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4516-24 pubmed publisher
    ..modeling of transcriptomic data identified the global transcription regulators ArcA, CRP, Fis, FNR, Fur, BaeR, CpxR, and IHF as targets and potential CO sensors...
  6. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  7. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  8. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  9. Bury Moné S, Nomane Y, Reymond N, Barbet R, Jacquet E, Imbeaud S, et al. Global analysis of extracytoplasmic stress signaling in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000651 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. ..
  10. Leblanc S, Oates C, Raivio T. Characterization of the induction and cellular role of the BaeSR two-component envelope stress response of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The known BaeR regulon is small, consisting of eight genes, mdtABCD-baeSR, acrD, and spy, two of which encode the BaeSR two-..