Gene Symbol: atpG
Description: F1 sector of membrane-bound ATP synthase, gamma subunit
Alias: ECK3726, JW3711, papC, uncG
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Li Q, Ng T, Dodson K, So S, Bayle K, Pinkner J, et al. The differential affinity of the usher for chaperone-subunit complexes is required for assembly of complete pili. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:159-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify residues F21 and R652 of the P pilus usher PapC as functioning in the differential affinity of the usher...
  2. Etzold C, Deckers Hebestreit G, Altendorf K. Turnover number of Escherichia coli F0F1 ATP synthase for ATP synthesis in membrane vesicles. Eur J Biochem. 1997;243:336-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these studies demonstrate that the ATP synthase complex of E. coli has, with respect to maximum rates, the same capacity as the corresponding enzymes of eukaryotic organells. ..
  3. Salmon K, Hung S, Steffen N, Krupp R, Baldi P, Hatfield G, et al. Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12: effects of oxygen availability and ArcA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15084-96 pubmed
    ..The strict statistical analyses that we have performed on our data allow us to predict that 1139 genes in the E. coli genome are regulated either directly or indirectly by the ArcA protein with a 99% confidence level. ..
  4. Kashiwagi S, Iwamoto Kihara A, Kojima M, Nonaka T, Futai M, Nakanishi Matsui M. Effects of mutations in the beta subunit hinge domain on ATP synthase F1 sector rotation: interaction between Ser 174 and Ile 163. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:227-31 pubmed
    ..Importance of the hinge domain [phosphate-binding loop (P-loop)/alpha-helixB/loop/beta-sheet4, betaPhe148-betaGly186] as to driving rotational catalysis is discussed. ..
  5. Nielsen J, Jørgensen B, van Meyenburg K, Hansen F. The promoters of the atp operon of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;193:64-71 pubmed
    ..The atp operon transcription terminates at a site approximately 50 bp downstream from the atpC gene. ..
  6. Diez M, Zimmermann B, Börsch M, König M, Schweinberger E, Steigmiller S, et al. Proton-powered subunit rotation in single membrane-bound F0F1-ATP synthase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:135-41 pubmed
    ..The average durations of these steps correspond to catalytic turnover times upon ATP synthesis as well as ATP hydrolysis. The direction of rotation during ATP synthesis is opposite to that of ATP hydrolysis. ..
  7. Bulygin V, Milgrom Y. A bi-site mechanism for Escherichia coli F1-ATPase accounts for the observed positive catalytic cooperativity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:1016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a bi-site mechanism is a general feature of F(1) catalysis. ..
  8. Dadi P, Ahmad M, Ahmad Z. Inhibition of ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by polyphenols. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009;45:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, resveratrol and piceatannol inhibited both ATPase and ATP synthesis whereas quercetin, quercetrin or quercetin-3-beta-d glucoside inhibited only ATPase activity and not ATP synthesis. ..
  9. Jeanteur De Beukelaer C, Omote H, Iwamoto Kihara A, Maeda M, Futai M. Beta-gamma subunit interaction is required for catalysis by H(+)-ATPase (ATP synthase). Beta subunit amino acid replacements suppress a gamma subunit mutation having a long unrelated carboxyl terminus. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22850-4 pubmed

More Information


  1. Gogol E, Lücken U, Capaldi R. The stalk connecting the F1 and F0 domains of ATP synthase visualized by electron microscopy of unstained specimens. FEBS Lett. 1987;219:274-8 pubmed
    ..The structures visualized in views normal to the lipid bilayer clearly show the presence of a narrow stalk approx. 45 A long, connecting the F1 to the membrane-embedded F0. ..
  2. Nakanishi Matsui M, Kashiwagi S, Ubukata T, Iwamoto Kihara A, Wada Y, Futai M. Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20698-704 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the domain between beta-sheet 4 (betaSer-174) and P-loop (betaGly-149) is important to drive rotation. ..
  3. Sekiya M, Nakamoto R, Al Shawi M, Nakanishi Matsui M, Futai M. Temperature dependence of single molecule rotation of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector reveals the importance of gamma-beta subunit interactions in the catalytic dwell. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The gammaM23K enzyme must overcome an abrupt activation energy barrier, forcing it onto a less favored pathway that results in uncoupling catalysis from rotation. ..
  4. Gunsalus R, Brusilow W, Simoni R. Gene order and gene-polypeptide relationships of the proton-translocating ATPase operon (unc) of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:320-4 pubmed
    ..This approach should be of use for study of other multigene bacterial operons, especially those with genes coding for polypeptides with unknown or unmeasurable catalytic activity. ..
  5. Henderson N, Ng T, Talukder I, Thanassi D. Function of the usher N-terminus in catalysing pilus assembly. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:954-67 pubmed publisher
    ..1 pilus systems of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we show that a conserved N-terminal disulphide region of the PapC and FimD ushers, as well as residue F4 of FimD, are required for the catalytic activity of the ushers...
  6. Walker J, Gay N, Saraste M, Eberle A. DNA sequence around the Escherichia coli unc operon. Completion of the sequence of a 17 kilobase segment containing asnA, oriC, unc, glmS and phoS. Biochem J. 1984;224:799-815 pubmed
    ..The glmS gene encoding the amidotransferase, glucosamine synthetase, has been identified by homology with glutamine 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase. ..
  7. Henderson N, So S, Martin C, Kulkarni R, Thanassi D. Topology of the outer membrane usher PapC determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53747-54 pubmed
    ..We present here the topology of the PapC usher, an outer membrane protein required for assembly and secretion of P pili by the chaperone/usher pathway in ..
  8. Zimmermann B, Diez M, Zarrabi N, Graber P, Börsch M. Movements of the epsilon-subunit during catalysis and activation in single membrane-bound H(+)-ATP synthase. EMBO J. 2005;24:2053-63 pubmed
    ..The three states of the inactive enzyme were unequally populated. We conclude that the active-inactive transition was associated with a conformational change of epsilon within the central stalk. ..
  9. Tang C, Wilkens S, Capaldi R. Structure of the gamma subunit of Escherichia coli F1 ATPase probed in trypsin digestion and biotin-avidin binding studies. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:4467-72 pubmed
    ..The four trypsin cleavage sites, Arg70, Lys199, Lys201, and Lys212, as well as Thr106 are in regions of the gamma subunit predicted to be mainly beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. ..
  10. Hornung T, Ishmukhametov R, Spetzler D, Martin J, Frasch W. Determination of torque generation from the power stroke of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1777:579-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the gamma-subunit was able to rotate with a 20x increase in viscosity, the transition time decreased from 0.4 ms to 5.26 ms. The torque was measured to be 63+/-8 pN nm, independent of the load on the enzyme. ..
  11. Sanchez E, Nadal I, Donat E, Ribes Koninckx C, Calabuig M, Sanz Y. Reduced diversity and increased virulence-gene carriage in intestinal enterobacteria of coeliac children. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:50 pubmed publisher
    ..groups A, B1, B2 and D and the prevalence of eight virulence-associated genes (type-1 fimbriae [fimA], P fimbriae [papC], S fimbriae [sfaD/E], Dr haemagglutinin [draA], haemolysin [hlyA], capsule K1 [neuB], capsule K5 [KfiC] and ..
  12. Schleif R, Lis J. The regulatory region of the L-arabinose operon: a physical, genetic and physiological study. J Mol Biol. 1975;95:417-31 pubmed
  13. Hauser R, Ceol A, Rajagopala S, Mosca R, Siszler G, Wermke N, et al. A second-generation protein-protein interaction network of Helicobacter pylori. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:1318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..coli of which one third turned out to be conserved in both species. ..
  14. Muller M, Gumbiowski K, Cherepanov D, Winkler S, Junge W, Engelbrecht S, et al. Rotary F1-ATPase. Is the C-terminus of subunit gamma fixed or mobile?. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:3914-22 pubmed
    ..The rotation of gamma within hours is compatible with the spectroscopically detected blockade of rotation in the AMP-PNP-inhibited enzyme in the time-range of seconds. ..
  15. Ahmad Z, Senior A. Role of betaAsn-243 in the phosphate-binding subdomain of catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F(1)-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46057-64 pubmed
    ..It is also probably involved in orientation of the "attacking water" and of an associated second water. ..
  16. Hausrath A, Gruber G, Matthews B, Capaldi R. Structural features of the gamma subunit of the Escherichia coli F(1) ATPase revealed by a 4.4-A resolution map obtained by x-ray crystallography. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13697-702 pubmed
    ..These suggest that the gamma subunit traverses the full length of the stalk that links the F(1) and F(O) parts and makes significant contacts with the c subunit ring of F(O). ..
  17. Saraste M, Gay N, Eberle A, Runswick M, Walker J. The atp operon: nucleotide sequence of the genes for the gamma, beta, and epsilon subunits of Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:5287-96 pubmed
    ..The genes for the alpha and beta subunits have evolved from a common ancestor. ..
  18. Pedersen P, Amzel L. ATP synthases. Structure, reaction center, mechanism, and regulation of one of nature's most unique machines. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9937-40 pubmed
  19. Knott V, Rees D, Cheng Z, Brownlee G. Randomly picked cosmid clones overlap the pyrB and oriC gap in the physical map of the E. coli chromosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:2601-12 pubmed
    ..Our results are relevant to the design of the best approach to the physical mapping of large genomes. ..
  20. Jones H, Brajkovich C, Gunsalus R. In vivo 5' terminus and length of the mRNA for the proton-translocating ATPase (unc) operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:1279-87 pubmed
    ..The level of unc operon expression, as assayed with the unc promoter plasmid, did not significantly differ when cells bearing the plasmid were grown either aerobically or anaerobically. ..
  21. Krebstakies T, Zimmermann B, Graber P, Altendorf K, Börsch M, Greie J. Both rotor and stator subunits are necessary for efficient binding of F1 to F0 in functionally assembled Escherichia coli ATP synthase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33338-45 pubmed
    ..The subunit c ring plays a crucial role in the binding of F1 to F0, whereas subunit a does not contribute significantly. ..
  22. Zimmermann B, Diez M, Börsch M, Graber P. Subunit movements in membrane-integrated EF0F1 during ATP synthesis detected by single-molecule spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:311-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this reflects a movement of the epsilon-subunit during active/inactive transition. ..
  23. Futai M, Noumi T, Maeda M. ATP synthase (H+-ATPase): results by combined biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:111-36 pubmed
  24. Scanlon J, Al Shawi M, Nakamoto R. A rotor-stator cross-link in the F1-ATPase blocks the rate-limiting step of rotational catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis provides additional insights into how the enzyme achieves efficient coupling and implicates the betaGlu-381 residue for proper formation of the rate-limiting transition state involving gamma subunit rotation. ..
  25. Greene M, Frasch W. Interactions among gamma R268, gamma Q269, and the beta subunit catch loop of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase are important for catalytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51594-8 pubmed
  26. Martin J, Ishmukhametov R, Hornung T, Ahmad Z, Frasch W. Anatomy of F1-ATPase powered rotation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:3715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The angular velocity profile also supports a model in which rotation is powered by Van der Waals repulsive forces during the final 85° of rotation, consistent with a transition from F1 structures 2HLD1 and 1H8E (Protein Data Bank)...
  27. Futai M. Reconstitution of ATPase activity from the isolated alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of the coupling factor, F1, of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;79:1231-7 pubmed
  28. Kanazawa H, Kayano T, Mabuchi K, Futai M. Nucleotide sequence of the genes coding for alpha, beta and gamma subunits of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981;103:604-12 pubmed
  29. Kasimoglu E, Park S, Malek J, Tseng C, Gunsalus R. Transcriptional regulation of the proton-translocating ATPase (atpIBEFHAGDC) operon of Escherichia coli: control by cell growth rate. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5563-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies establish that synthesis of the F0F1 ATPase is not greatly varied by modulating atp operon transcription. ..
  30. Sielaff H, Rennekamp H, Wächter A, Xie H, Hilbers F, Feldbauer K, et al. Domain compliance and elastic power transmission in rotary F(O)F(1)-ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This elastic buffer smoothes the cooperation of the 2 stepping motors. It is located were needed, between the 2 sites where the power strokes in F(O) and F(1) are generated and consumed. ..
  31. Remaut H, Tang C, Henderson N, Pinkner J, Wang T, Hultgren S, et al. Fiber formation across the bacterial outer membrane by the chaperone/usher pathway. Cell. 2008;133:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..assembly platform--the usher--is revealed by the crystal structure of the translocation domain of the P pilus usher PapC and single particle cryo-electron microscopy imaging of the FimD usher bound to a translocating type 1 pilus ..
  32. Dunn S. Epsilon-binding regions of the gamma subunit of Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1319:177-84 pubmed
    ..The competition of these antibodies with epsilon for binding to gamma implies that their epitopes, quite separate in sequence, are both located in parts of the subunit involved in binding epsilon. ..
  33. Gogol E, Lücken U, Bork T, Capaldi R. Molecular architecture of Escherichia coli F1 adenosinetriphosphatase. Biochemistry. 1989;28:4709-16 pubmed
    ..A compact protein density, located at one end of the hexagonal barrel and closely associated with one of the peripheral subunits, partially obstructs the central cavity. ..
  34. Senior A. The proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem. 1990;19:7-41 pubmed
    ..Long-range conformational interaction between the H+ conduction machinery in F0 and the catalytic sites in F1 seems basic to energy coupling; a major future goal is to provide a realistic physical explanation to validate this concept. ..
  35. Weber J, Bowman C, Wilke Mounts S, Senior A. alpha-Aspartate 261 is a key residue in noncatalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21045-9 pubmed
    ..Under conditions where noncatalytic sites were empty, alpha D261N/alpha R365W F1 showed significant hydrolysis of MgATP. This established unequivocally that occupancy of noncatalytic sites by nucleotide is not required for catalysis. ..
  36. Grabar T, Cain B. Genetic complementation between mutant b subunits in F1F0 ATP synthase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31205-11 pubmed
  37. Trchounian A. Escherichia coli proton-translocating F0F1-ATP synthase and its association with solute secondary transporters and/or enzymes of anaerobic oxidation-reduction under fermentation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:1051-7 pubmed
    ..These associations can result from a protein-protein interaction by dithiol-disulfide interchange. In such associations F0F1 has novel functions in bacterial cell physiology. ..
  38. Tang C, Capaldi R. Characterization of the interface between gamma and epsilon subunits of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3018-24 pubmed
    ..0 still binds purified epsilon subunit, while enzyme treated with the protease at pH 8.0 does not. This identifies sites around residue 70 and/or between 202 and 212 of the gamma subunit as involved in epsilon subunit binding. ..
  39. Lowry D, Frasch W. Interactions between beta D372 and gamma subunit N-terminus residues gamma K9 and gamma S12 are important to catalytic activity catalyzed by Escherichia coli F1F0-ATP synthase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7275-81 pubmed
  40. Iwamoto A, Miki J, Maeda M, Futai M. H(+)-ATPase gamma subunit of Escherichia coli. Role of the conserved carboxyl-terminal region. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:5043-8 pubmed
    Cloned uncG genes (wild-type or in vitro mutagenized) for the Escherichia coli gamma subunit were introduced into the uncG mutant Gln-14----end), and the functions of the mutant subunits were studied...
  41. Sekiya M, Hosokawa H, Nakanishi Matsui M, Al Shawi M, Nakamoto R, Futai M. Single molecule behavior of inhibited and active states of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 rotation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:42058-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the ? subunit plays a role in guiding the enzyme through the proper and efficient catalytic and transport rotational pathway but does not influence the transition to the inhibited state. ..
  42. Hellmuth K, Rex G, Surin B, Zinck R, McCarthy J. Translational coupling varying in efficiency between different pairs of genes in the central region of the atp operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:813-24 pubmed
    ..Five genes, atpE, atpF, atpH, atpA and atpG, were shown to be translationally coupled to various degrees of tightness...
  43. Klionsky D, Simoni R. Assembly of a functional F1 of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:11200-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations of the uncA(alpha), uncG(gamma), or uncD(beta) genes result in a defective assembly of the F1 complex...
  44. York J, Spetzler D, Hornung T, Ishmukhametov R, Martin J, Frasch W. Abundance of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate via single-molecule microscopy with gold nanorod probes. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2007;39:435-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that rotational measurements made using gold nanorods provide information of the F1-ATPase mechanism that is representative of the characteristics of the enzyme population as a whole. ..
  45. Pati S, Brusilow W. The roles of the alpha and gamma subunits in proton conduction through the Fo sector of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:2640-4 pubmed
    ..coli membranes. The presence of a gamma subunit counteracted the lethal effects as if gamma were blocking the opened channel. ..
  46. Ford B, Rêgo A, Ragan T, Pinkner J, Dodson K, Driscoll P, et al. Structural homology between the C-terminal domain of the PapC usher and its plug. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..pilus biogenesis involving two proteins, the periplasmic chaperone PapD and the outer membrane assembly platform, PapC. Many aspects of the structural biology of the Pap CU pathway have been elucidated, except for the C-terminal ..
  47. Schulenberg B, Aggeler R, Murray J, Capaldi R. The gammaepsilon-c subunit interface in the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli. cross-linking of the epsilon subunit to the c subunit ring does not impair enzyme function, that of gamma to c subunits leads to uncoupling. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:34233-7 pubmed
    ..Blocking these structural changes by cross-linking leads to a proton leak within the F(0). ..
  48. Nakanishi Matsui M, Kashiwagi S, Hosokawa H, Cipriano D, Dunn S, Wada Y, et al. Stochastic high-speed rotation of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector: the epsilon subunit-sensitive rotation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4126-31 pubmed
    ..Stochastic fluctuation of catalysis may be a general property of an enzyme, although its understanding requires combining studies of steady-state kinetics and single molecule observation. ..
  49. Borsch M, Graber P. Subunit movement in individual H+-ATP synthases during ATP synthesis and hydrolysis revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:878-82 pubmed
    ..After reconstitution into a liposome, this enzyme was able to catalyse ATP synthesis when the membrane was energized. ..
  50. Li H, Qian L, Chen Z, Thibault D, Liu G, Liu T, et al. The outer membrane usher forms a twin-pore secretion complex. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:1397-407 pubmed
    The PapC usher is an outer membrane protein required for assembly and secretion of P pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. P pilus biogenesis occurs by the chaperone/usher pathway, a terminal branch of the general secretory pathway...
  51. Pedersen P, Ko Y, Hong S. ATP synthases in the year 2000: defining the different levels of mechanism and getting a grip on each. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2000;32:423-32 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, in order to get a better grip in this new century on how ATP synthases make ATP and then release it, we must take on the difficult challenge of elucidating each of the three levels of mechanism. ..
  52. Gao Y, Yang W, Marcus R, Karplus M. A model for the cooperative free energy transduction and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by F1-ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11339-44 pubmed
  53. McLachlin D, Dunn S. Disulfide linkage of the b and delta subunits does not affect the function of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Biochemistry. 2000;39:3486-90 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a permanent association of b(2) with delta as suggested by the rotational model of enzyme function. ..
  54. Pilizota T, Bilyard T, Bai F, Futai M, Hosokawa H, Berry R. A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors. Biophys J. 2007;93:264-75 pubmed
    ..6 kHz. Details of the optical trap, algorithm, and alignment procedures are given. Preliminary data showing angular control of F(1)-ATPase and angular and speed control of the bacterial flagellar motor are presented. ..
  55. Galkin M, Ishmukhametov R, Vik S. A functionally inactive, cold-stabilized form of the Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:206-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that thermohysteresis is a consequence of an inactive form of the enzyme that is stabilized by the binding of inhibitory Mg-ADP. ..
  56. Mabuchi K, Kanazawa H, Kayano T, Futai M. Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the delta subunit of proton translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981;102:172-9 pubmed