Gene Symbol: atoC
Description: fused response regulator of ato operon, in two-component system with AtoS: response regulator/sigma54 interaction protein
Alias: ECK2213, JW2214
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  2. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  3. Ivanov I, Gesteland R, Atkins J. Does antizyme exist in Escherichia coli?. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1521-2 pubmed
  4. Jenkins L, Nunn W. Regulation of the ato operon by the atoC gene in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2096-102 pubmed
    ..A 48-kilodalton protein encoded by atoC was required for the synthesis or activation of the Ato enzymes...
  5. Rhie H, Dennis D. Role of fadR and atoC(Con) mutations in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:2487-92 pubmed
    Recombinant Escherichia coli fadR atoC(Con) mutants containing the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus are able to incorporate significant levels of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) into the copolymer poly(3-..
  6. Canellakis E, Paterakis A, Huang S, Panagiotidis C, Kyriakidis D. Identification, cloning, and nucleotide sequencing of the ornithine decarboxylase antizyme gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7129-33 pubmed
  7. Lioliou E, Kyriakidis D. The role of bacterial antizyme: From an inhibitory protein to AtoC transcriptional regulator. Microb Cell Fact. 2004;3:8 pubmed
    ..antizyme and nucleic acid was determined by discerning an additional function to antizyme that proved to be the atoC gene product, encoding the response regulator of the bacterial two-component system AtoS-AtoC...
  8. Jenkins L, Nunn W. Genetic and molecular characterization of the genes involved in short-chain fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli: the ato system. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:42-52 pubmed
    ..A [CoA]:acetoacetyl [AA]-CoA transferase) and atoB (thiolase II), as well as mutations in the ato regulatory locus, atoC. Complementation studies performed with mutants defective in acetyl-CoA:AA-CoA transferase suggest that two loci, ..
  9. Pauli G, Overath P. ato Operon: a highly inducible system for acetoacetate and butyrate degradation in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1972;29:553-62 pubmed

More Information


  1. Theodorou M, Panagiotidis C, Panagiotidis C, Pantazaki A, Kyriakidis D. Involvement of the AtoS-AtoC signal transduction system in poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:896-906 pubmed
    The AtoS-AtoC signal transduction system in E. coli, which induces the atoDAEB operon for the growth of E...
  2. Lioliou E, Mimitou E, Grigoroudis A, Panagiotidis C, Panagiotidis C, Kyriakidis D. Phosphorylation activity of the response regulator of the two-component signal transduction system AtoS-AtoC in E. coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1725:257-68 pubmed
    Antizyme, long known to be a non-competitive inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, is encoded by the atoC gene in Escherichia coli...
  3. Matta M, Lioliou E, Panagiotidis C, Kyriakidis D, Panagiotidis C. Interactions of the antizyme AtoC with regulatory elements of the Escherichia coli atoDAEB operon. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6324-32 pubmed
    b>AtoC has a dual function as both an antizyme, the posttranslational inhibitor of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, and the transcriptional regulator of genes involved in short-chain fatty acid catabolism (the atoDAEB operon)...
  4. Grigoroudis A, Panagiotidis C, Lioliou E, Vlassi M, Kyriakidis D. Molecular modeling and functional analysis of the AtoS-AtoC two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:1248-58 pubmed
    The AtoS-AtoC two-component signal transduction system positively regulates the expression of the atoDAEB operon in Escherichia coli...
  5. Theodorou E, Theodorou M, Kyriakidis D. AtoSC two-component system is involved in cPHB biosynthesis through fatty acid metabolism in E. coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown previously that AtoSC two-component system regulates the biosynthesis of E. coli cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]...
  6. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  7. Igarashi K. [Physiological functions of polyamines and regulation of polyamine content in cells]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006;126:455-71 pubmed
    ..Increased levels of polyamine oxidase and acrolein are good markers of chronic renal failure and brain stroke. ..
  8. Salanitro J, Wegener W. Growth of Escherichia coli on short-chain fatty acids: nature of the uptake system. J Bacteriol. 1971;108:893-901 pubmed
    ..In the other, the uptake system is inducible, and the strain is pentenoate-resistant when grown on acetate but pentenoate-sensitive when cultured on butyrate or valerate. ..
  9. Clark D, Rod M. Regulatory mutations that allow the growth of Escherichia coli on butanol as carbon source. J Mol Evol. 1987;25:151-8 pubmed
    ..When the adhR mutation expressing the highest ADH and ACDH levels was present together with fadR and atoC mutations (allowing efficient catabolism of acetoacetyl-CoA) and with an aceX mutation, the resulting strains ..
  10. Filippou P, Lioliou E, Panagiotidis C, Athanassopoulos C, Garnelis T, Papaioannou D, et al. Effect of polyamines and synthetic polyamine-analogues on the expression of antizyme (AtoC) and its regulatory genes. BMC Biochem. 2007;8:1 pubmed
    ..coli. Az was also revealed to be the product of the atoC gene...
  11. Kyriakidis D, Theodorou M, Filippou P, Kyriakidis K, Tiligada E. Effect of histamine on the signal transduction of the AtoS-AtoC two component system and involvement in poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Amino Acids. 2008;35:45-52 pubmed publisher
    AtoS-AtoC two-component system acts directly on the atoDAEB operon transcription to regulate the biosynthesis of short-chain poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate...
  12. Theodorou M, Tiligada E, Kyriakidis D. Extracellular Ca2+ transients affect poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate regulation by the AtoS-AtoC system in Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2009;417:667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..shows that extracellular Ca2+ controls cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] biosynthesis through the AtoS-AtoC two-component system...
  13. Theodorou M, Theodorou E, Panagiotidis C, Kyriakidis D. Spermidine triggering effect to the signal transduction through the AtoS-AtoC/Az two-component system in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:1104-14 pubmed
    Recent analysis revealed that, in Escherichia coli the AtoS-AtoC/Az two-component system (TCS) and its target atoDAEB operon regulate the biosynthesis of short-chain poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (cPHB) biosynthesis, a biopolymer with many ..
  14. Kyriakidis D, Tiligada E. Signal transduction and adaptive regulation through bacterial two-component systems: the Escherichia coli AtoSC paradigm. Amino Acids. 2009;37:443-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli, cross-talk between the AtoS histidine kinase and the AtoC response regulator, forming the AtoSC TCS, through His --> Asp phosphotransfer, activates AtoC directly to ..
  15. Theodorou E, Theodorou M, Samali M, Kyriakidis D. Activation of the AtoSC two-component system in the absence of the AtoC N-terminal receiver domain in E. coli. Amino Acids. 2011;40:421-30 pubmed publisher
    The AtoSC two-component system in E. coli consists of the AtoS sensor kinase and the AtoC response regulator...
  16. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed