Gene Symbol: aroK
Description: shikimate kinase I
Alias: ECK3377, JW5947
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
  2. DeFeyter R, Pittard J. Purification and properties of shikimate kinase II from Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:331-3 pubmed
    ..Shikimate kinase II is dependent on metal ions for activity. ..
  3. Millar G, Lewendon A, Hunter M, Coggins J. The cloning and expression of the aroL gene from Escherichia coli K12. Purification and complete amino acid sequence of shikimate kinase II, the aroL-gene product. Biochem J. 1986;237:427-37 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence contains a region homologous with other kinases and ATP-requiring enzymes. Evidence is presented suggesting that the transcriptional start site of the aroL gene is located within a potential operator site. ..
  4. Johansson L, Liden G. Transcriptome analysis of a shikimic acid producing strain of Escherichia coli W3110 grown under carbon- and phosphate-limited conditions. J Biotechnol. 2006;126:528-45 pubmed
    ..The reason for this difference is interpreted in terms of starvation for aromatic amino acids under carbon-limitation which is relieved under phosphate-limitation due to an upregulation of aroK and aroA.
  5. Katayama T, Akimitsu N, Mizushima T, Miki T, Sekimizu K. Overinitiation of chromosome replication in the Escherichia coli dnaAcos mutant depends on activation of oriC function by the dam gene product. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:661-70 pubmed
    ..Three of the suppressors carried Tn5 in the aroK or aroB gene, the first two cistrons in the dam operon...
  6. Løbner Olesen A, Boye E, Marinus M. Expression of the Escherichia coli dam gene. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1841-51 pubmed
    ..This 16 kDa open reading frame has been identified as aroK, the gene for shikimic acid kinase I. Thus the dam gene is part of an operon containing aroK, aroB, urf74...
  7. DeFeyter R, Pittard J. Genetic and molecular analysis of aroL, the gene for shikimate kinase II in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:226-32 pubmed
    ..Transcription proceeds in the order aroL aroM in a clockwise direction on the chromosome. The function of aroM remains unknown. ..
  8. Wahl S, Haunschild M, Oldiges M, Wiechert W. Unravelling the regulatory structure of biochemical networks using stimulus response experiments and large-scale model selection. Syst Biol (Stevenage). 2006;153:275-85 pubmed
    ..It is illustrated by the example of the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. ..
  9. Whipp M, Pittard A. A reassessment of the relationship between aroK- and aroL-encoded shikimate kinase enzymes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1627-9 pubmed
    In the course of sequencing the aroK gene, a number of errors were found in the published sequence...

More Information


  1. Vinella D, Gagny B, Joseleau Petit D, D Ari R, Cashel M. Mecillinam resistance in Escherichia coli is conferred by loss of a second activity of the AroK protein. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:3818-28 pubmed
    ..5 min on the E. coli map and was located between the promoters and the coding sequence of the aroK gene, which codes for shikimate kinase 1, one of two E...
  2. Ely B, Pittard J. Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis: regulation of shikimate kinase in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1979;138:933-43 pubmed
    ..coli was isolated. The mutant was an aromatic prototroph and, by the criterion of column chromatography, appeared to have only a single functional species of shikimate kinase enzyme. ..
  3. DeFeyter R, Davidson B, Pittard J. Nucleotide sequence of the transcription unit containing the aroL and aroM genes from Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:233-9 pubmed
    ..The DNA upstream of aroL contains a number of imperfect palindromes which are closely homologous to known sites of regulation by the TyrR protein in other operons. ..
  4. Griffin H, Gasson M. The gene (aroK) encoding shikimate kinase I from Escherichia coli. DNA Seq. 1995;5:195-7 pubmed
    Shikimate kinase I (SKI), encoded by the aroK gene, converts shikimate to shikimate 3-phosphate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids. This paper provides evidence that the E...
  5. Lyngstadaas A, Løbner Olesen A, Grelland E, Boye E. The gene for 2-phosphoglycolate phosphatase (gph) in Escherichia coli is located in the same operon as dam and at least five other diverse genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1472:376-84 pubmed
    ..A novel promoter was identified in the distal part of the dam gene. The operon, which contains aroK, aroB, urf74...
  6. Knop D, Draths K, Chandran S, Barker J, von Daeniken R, Weber W, et al. Hydroaromatic equilibration during biosynthesis of shikimic acid. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:10173-82 pubmed
    ..By apparently repressing shikimate transport, the aforementioned E. coli SP1.1/pKD12.138 synthesized 52 g/L of shikimic acid in 18% yield from glucose as a 14:1.0:3.0 shikimate/quinate/dehydroshikimate mixture. ..
  7. Løbner Olesen A, Marinus M. Identification of the gene (aroK) encoding shikimic acid kinase I of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:525-9 pubmed
    ..The auxotrophic requirements of a strain mutant for both urf1 and aroL (encoding shikimate kinase II) are consistent with shikimate kinase deficiency. We propose that urf1 encodes shikimate kinase I and that it be designated aroK.
  8. Lyngstadaas A, L bner Olesen A, Boye E. Characterization of three genes in the dam-containing operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;247:546-54 pubmed
    The dam-containing operon in Escherichia coli is located at 74 min on the chromosomal map and contains the genes aroK, aroB, a gene called urf74.3, dam and trpS...
  9. Huo L, Martin K, Schleif R. Alternative DNA loops regulate the arabinose operon in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:5444-8 pubmed
    ..Upon the addition of arabinose the amount of the first loop type, the repression loop, decreases and the amount of a second loop increases. Formation of this second loop precludes the counterproductive formation of the repression loop. ..
  10. Ahn J, Lee H, Saha R, Park M, Jung J, Lee D. Exploring the effects of carbon sources on the metabolic capacity for shikimic acid production in Escherichia coli using in silico metabolic predictions. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1773-84 pubmed
    ..21 mol SA formed per mol carbon atom of carbon source consumed. The current strain can be further improved to satisfy the theoretically achievable SA production that was predicted by in silico analysis. ..