Gene Symbol: aroG
Description: 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, phenylalanine repressible
Alias: ECK0743, JW0737
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. McCandliss R, Poling M, Herrmann K. 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase. Purification and molecular characterization of the phenylalanine-sensitive isoenzyme from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:4259-65 pubmed
    ..coli (Schoner, R., and Herrmann, K.M. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 5440-5447) are compared with those of the phenylalanine-sensitive isoenzyme from the same organism. ..
  2. Balachandran N, Heimhalt M, Liuni P, To F, Wilson D, Junop M, et al. Potent Inhibition of 3-Deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Synthase by DAHP Oxime, a Phosphate Group Mimic. Biochemistry. 2016;55:6617-6629 pubmed
    ..In spite of its lack of obvious structural similarity to phosphate, the oxime and crystallographic waters acted as a small, neutral phosphate mimic. ..
  3. Shumilin I, Bauerle R, Kretsinger R. The high-resolution structure of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase reveals a twist in the plane of bound phosphoenolpyruvate. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3766-76 pubmed
    ..In addition, seven water molecules are within contact distance of PEP, two of which are close enough to its C2 atom to serve as the nucleophile required in the reaction. ..
  4. Kikuchi Y, Tsujimoto K, Kurahashi O. Mutational analysis of the feedback sites of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:761-2 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, aroF, aroG, and aroH encode 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase isozymes that are feedback inhibited by tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, respectively...
  5. Davies W, Davidson B. The nucleotide sequence of aroG, the gene for 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase (phe) in Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:4045-58 pubmed
    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of aroG, the gene coding for 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase(phe), one of three isoenzymes that catalyse the first step of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and ..
  6. Wallace B, Pittard J. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the isoenzymes concerned in the first reaction of aromatic biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1967;93:237-44 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome. Chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose columns allowed the recognition of four peaks of activity. ..
  7. Mattern I, Pittard J. Regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: isolation and characterization of operator mutants. J Bacteriol. 1971;107:8-15 pubmed
    ..The mutant allele aroK is not recessive to aroK(+) and aroK/aroK(+) strains exhibit the aroK phenotype of resistance to 4-aminophenylalanine. It is proposed that aroK is an operator locus for an aroF tyrA operon. ..
  8. Wahl S, Haunschild M, Oldiges M, Wiechert W. Unravelling the regulatory structure of biochemical networks using stimulus response experiments and large-scale model selection. Syst Biol (Stevenage). 2006;153:275-85 pubmed
    ..It is illustrated by the example of the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. ..
  9. Knop D, Draths K, Chandran S, Barker J, von Daeniken R, Weber W, et al. Hydroaromatic equilibration during biosynthesis of shikimic acid. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:10173-82 pubmed
    ..By apparently repressing shikimate transport, the aforementioned E. coli SP1.1/pKD12.138 synthesized 52 g/L of shikimic acid in 18% yield from glucose as a 14:1.0:3.0 shikimate/quinate/dehydroshikimate mixture. ..

More Information


  1. Davies W, Pittard J, Davidson B. Cloning of aroG, the gene coding for phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-heptonate aldolase(phe), in Escherichia coli K-12, and subcloning of the aroG promoter and operator in a promoter-detecting plasmid. Gene. 1985;33:323-31 pubmed
    Defective transducing phages carrying aroG, the structural gene for phenylalanine (phe)-inhibitable phospho-2-keto-heptonate aldolase (EC 4.1.2...
  2. Sundaram A, Woodard R. Probing the stereochemistry of E. coli 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (phenylalanine-sensitive)-catalyzed synthesis of KDO 8-P analogues. J Org Chem. 2000;65:5891-7 pubmed
  3. Simpson R, Davidson B. Studies on 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase(phe)from Escherichia coli K12. 2. Kinetic properties. Eur J Biochem. 1976;70:501-7 pubmed
    ..0. The effects of pH ON V and V/(Km for phosphoenolpyruvate) indicated that an ionizing group of pKa 8.0-8.1 is involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The pKa of this group is unaffected by the binding of phosphoenolpyruvate. ..
  4. Hu C, Jiang P, Xu J, Wu Y, Huang W. Mutation analysis of the feedback inhibition site of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of Escherichia coli. J Basic Microbiol. 2003;43:399-406 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) AroG catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds...
  5. Nemoz G, Robert Baudouy J, Stoeber F. Physiological and genetic regulation of the aldohexuronate transport system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976;127:706-18 pubmed
  6. Jordan P, Bohle D, Ramilo C, Evans J. New insights into the metal center of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8387-96 pubmed
  7. Furdui C, Sau A, Yaniv O, Belakhov V, Woodard R, Baasov T, et al. The use of (E)- and (Z)-phosphoenol-3-fluoropyruvate as mechanistic probes reveals significant differences between the active sites of KDO8P and DAHP synthases. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7326-35 pubmed
    ..1 s(-)(1) for (Z)-FPEP, respectively]. The observed data indicate substantial differences in the PEP subsites and open the opportunity for the design of selective inhibitors against these two families of enzymes. ..
  8. Jiang P, Shi M, Qian Z, Li N, Huang W. Effect of F209S Mutation of Escherichia coli AroG on Resistance to Phenylalanine Feedback Inhibition. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2000;32:441-444 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, 80% of the 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate(DAHP) synthase was encoded by aroG gene...
  9. Jensen R, Xie G, Calhoun D, Bonner C. The correct phylogenetic relationship of KdsA (3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase) with one of two independently evolved classes of AroA (3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase). J Mol Evol. 2002;54:416-23 pubmed
  10. Wallace B, Pittard J. Chromatography of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonic acid-7-phosphate synthetase (trp) on diethylaminoethyl cellulose: a correction. J Bacteriol. 1967;94:1279-80 pubmed
  11. Baseggio N, Davies W, Davidson B. Identification of the promoter, operator, and 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA of the Escherichia coli K-12 gene aroG. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2547-57 pubmed
    The promoter, operator, and 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA of the Escherichia coli gene aroG (encoding the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase) were located...
  12. Im S, Pittard J. Phenylalanine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: mutants derepressed for chorismate mutase P-prephenate dehydratase. J Bacteriol. 1971;106:784-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, the pheO mutant alleles have been shown to be dominant in diploids. ..
  13. Shumilin I, Kretsinger R, Bauerle R. Crystal structure of phenylalanine-regulated 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Structure. 1999;7:865-75 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported structure of a DAHPS; the structure of its two paralogs and of a variety of orthologs should now be readily determined by molecular replacement. ..
  14. Stephens C, Bauerle R. Analysis of the metal requirement of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:20810-7 pubmed
    ..The tetrameric DAHPS(Phe) exhibited positive homotropic cooperativity with respect to erythrose 4-phosphate, phophoenolpyruvate, and phenylalanine in the presence of all metals tested. ..
  15. Hudson G, Davidson B. Nucleotide sequence and transcription of the phenylalanine and tyrosine operons of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1984;180:1023-51 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase and chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase are homologous at their N termini, while the tyrosine-sensitive isoenzyme of DAHP synthetase is closely homologous to the phenylalanine-sensitive isoenzyme encoded by aroG.
  16. Parker E, Bulloch E, Jameson G, Abell C. Substrate deactivation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase by erythrose 4-phosphate. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14821-8 pubmed
  17. Johansson L, Liden G. Transcriptome analysis of a shikimic acid producing strain of Escherichia coli W3110 grown under carbon- and phosphate-limited conditions. J Biotechnol. 2006;126:528-45 pubmed
    ..The reason for this difference is interpreted in terms of starvation for aromatic amino acids under carbon-limitation which is relieved under phosphate-limitation due to an upregulation of aroK and aroA. ..
  18. Held W, Smith O. Regulation of the Escherichia coli tryptophan operon by early reactions in the aromatic pathway. J Bacteriol. 1970;101:202-8 pubmed
    ..evidence indicates that the mutation conferring 3MA resistance and feedback resistance is very closely linked to aroG, the structural gene for the DAHP synthetase (phe)...
  19. Furdui C, Zhou L, Woodard R, Anderson K. Insights into the mechanism of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (Phe) from Escherichia coli using a transient kinetic analysis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45618-25 pubmed
    ..0. This supports the hypothesis that the role of metal ion in E. coli DAHP synthase is to position the amino acids with the appropriate geometry required to coordinate and activate the water molecule. ..
  20. Wagner T, Shumilin I, Bauerle R, Kretsinger R. Structure of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: comparison of the Mn(2+)*2-phosphoglycolate and the Pb(2+)*2-phosphoenolpyruvate complexes and implications for catalysis. J Mol Biol. 2000;301:389-99 pubmed
    ..The re face of E4P can be positioned to interact with the si face of PEP with only small movement of the protein. ..
  21. Walker S, Parker E. Synthesis and evaluation of a mechanism-based inhibitor of a 3-deoxy-D-arabino heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:2951-4 pubmed
  22. Xu J, Hu C, Shen S, Wang W, Jiang P, Huang W. Requirement of the N-terminus for dimer formation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate synthase AroG of Escherichia coli. J Basic Microbiol. 2004;44:400-6 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, the allosteric DAHPS exists as three isozymes, AroG, AroF and AroH, each independently feedback-inhibited by corresponding end product amino acids, phenylalanine, ..
  23. Báez Viveros J, Osuna J, Hernández Chávez G, Soberon X, Bolivar F, Gosset G. Metabolic engineering and protein directed evolution increase the yield of L-phenylalanine synthesized from glucose in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;87:516-24 pubmed
    ..transformed with three plasmids, harboring genes that encode for a feedback inhibition resistant DAHP synthase (aroG(fbr)), transketolase (tktA) and either a truncated CM-PDT (pheA(fbr)) or its derived evolved genes (pheA(ev1) or ..
  24. Shumilin I, Zhao C, Bauerle R, Kretsinger R. Allosteric inhibition of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase alters the coordination of both substrates. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:1147-56 pubmed
    ..This alters the interaction of DAHPS with both of its substrates. Upon binding of Phe, the enzyme loses the ability to bind D-erythrose-4-phosphate and binds phosphoenolpyruvate in a flipped orientation. ..
  25. Shumilin I, Kretsinger R, Bauerle R. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary crystallographic analysis of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Proteins. 1996;24:404-6 pubmed
    ..5 A, b = 54.3 A, c = 149.0 A, beta = 116.6 degrees. All crystals of the enzyme with Phe also belong to space group C2, but with cell parameters a = 297.1 A, b = 91.4 A, c = 256.5 A, and beta = 148.2 degrees. ..
  26. Wallace B, Pittard J. Regulation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic 7-phosphate acid synthetase activity in relation to the synthesis of the aromatic vitamins in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1969;99:707-12 pubmed
    ..Under repressed conditions both DAHP synthetase (phe) and (trp), but not DAHP synthetase (tyr), were shown to contribute to vitamin production. ..
  27. Hendrickson W, Stoner C, Schleif R. Characterization of the Escherichia coli araFGH and araJ promoters. J Mol Biol. 1990;215:497-510 pubmed
    ..Two CRP sites were observed; one is upstream from the AraC site and one is downstream from the transcription start site. ..
  28. Ray J, Yanofsky C, Bauerle R. Mutational analysis of the catalytic and feedback sites of the tryptophan-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:5500-6 pubmed
    ..amino acid sequence of AroH is compared with that of the tyrosine-sensitive (AroF) and phenylalanine-sensitive (AroG) DAHPS isoenzymes...