Gene Symbol: arcA
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with ArcB or CpxA
Alias: ECK4393, JW4364, cpxC, dye, fexA, msp, seg, sfrA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Nanchen A, Schicker A, Revelles O, Sauer U. Cyclic AMP-dependent catabolite repression is the dominant control mechanism of metabolic fluxes under glucose limitation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..flux analysis of Escherichia coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited ..
  2. Iuchi S, Lin E. arcA (dye), a global regulatory gene in Escherichia coli mediating repression of enzymes in aerobic pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1888-92 pubmed
    ..In an arcA mutant the anaerobic levels of these enzymes are increased...
  3. Georgellis D, Kwon O, De Wulf P, Lin E. Signal decay through a reverse phosphorelay in the Arc two-component signal transduction system. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32864-9 pubmed
    ..autophosphorylation at the expense of ATP and subsequently transphosphorylates its cognate response regulator ArcA through a His --> Asp --> His --> Asp phosphorelay pathway...
  4. Kwon O, Georgellis D, Lin E. Phosphorelay as the sole physiological route of signal transmission by the arc two-component system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3858-62 pubmed
    The Arc two-component system, comprising a tripartite sensor kinase (ArcB) and a response regulator (ArcA), modulates the expression of numerous genes involved in respiratory functions...
  5. Rolfe M, Ter Beek A, Graham A, Trotter E, Asif H, Sanguinetti G, et al. Transcript profiling and inference of Escherichia coli K-12 ArcA activity across the range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The model implied that the activity of the regulator ArcA correlated with aerobiosis but not with the redox state of the ubiquinone pool, challenging the idea that ArcA ..
  6. Zhu J, Shalel Levanon S, Bennett G, San K. Effect of the global redox sensing/regulation networks on Escherichia coli and metabolic flux distribution based on C-13 labeling experiments. Metab Eng. 2006;8:619-27 pubmed
    ..coli, an arcA mutant, an fnr mutant, and an arcAfnr double mutant strains under a well-defined semi-aerobic condition...
  7. Perrenoud A, Sauer U. Impact of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on glucose catabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3171-9 pubmed
    ..of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli...
  8. Iuchi S, Furlong D, Lin E. Differentiation of arcA, arcB, and cpxA mutant phenotypes of Escherichia coli by sex pilus formation and enzyme regulation. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:2889-93 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, mutations in arcA (dye) or arcB anaerobically derepress the synthesis of a multitude of enzymes of aerobic function, and mutations in arcA or cpxA impair F-pilus formation...
  9. Govantes F, Orjalo A, Gunsalus R. Interplay between three global regulatory proteins mediates oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:1061-73 pubmed
    ..transcribed in microaerobiosis as a result of the combined action of the oxygen-responsive regulators Fnr and ArcA. Here, we report that the histone-like protein H-NS is an aerobic repressor of cydAB expression...

More Information


  1. Pellicer M, Fernandez C, Badia J, Aguilar J, Lin E, Baldom L. Cross-induction of glc and ace operons of Escherichia coli attributable to pathway intersection. Characterization of the glc promoter. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1745-52 pubmed strongly dependent on the integration host factor (IHF) and is repressed by the global respiratory regulator ArcA-P. In vitro gel-shift experiments demonstrated direct binding of the promoter DNA to IHF and ArcA-P...
  2. Levanon S, San K, Bennett G. Effect of oxygen on the Escherichia coli ArcA and FNR regulation systems and metabolic responses. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;89:556-64 pubmed
    ..To quantitate the contribution of Arc and Fnr-dependent regulation in catabolism, arcA and fnr mutant strains were constructed using the recently developed lambda derived recombination system...
  3. Cho B, Knight E, Palsson B. Transcriptional regulation of the fad regulon genes of Escherichia coli by ArcA. Microbiology. 2006;152:2207-19 pubmed
    b>ArcA is a global transcription factor required for optimal growth of Escherichia coli during anaerobic growth. In this study, the role of ArcA on the transcriptional regulatory subnetwork of the fad regulon was investigated...
  4. Tardat B, Touati D. Iron and oxygen regulation of Escherichia coli MnSOD expression: competition between the global regulators Fur and ArcA for binding to DNA. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:53-63 pubmed
    ..superoxide dismutase (the sodA gene product) in Escherichia coli, is negatively regulated by two global regulators, ArcA (aerobic respiration control) and Fur (ferric uptake regulation), coupling its expression to aerobic metabolism and ..
  5. Jeon Y, Lee Y, Han J, Kim J, Hwang D. Multimerization of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated ArcA is necessary for the response regulator function of the Arc two-component signal transduction system. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40873-9 pubmed
    ..the Arc two-component signal transduction system, consisting of a sensor kinase, ArcB, and a response regulator, ArcA. ArcA is converted to the active form, phosphorylated ArcA (ArcA-P), by ArcB-mediated phosphorylation...
  6. Mika F, Hengge R. A two-component phosphotransfer network involving ArcB, ArcA, and RssB coordinates synthesis and proteolysis of sigmaS (RpoS) in E. coli. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2770-81 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the phosphorylated response regulator ArcA is a direct repressor of rpoS transcription that binds to two sites flanking the major rpoS promoter, with the ..
  7. Nesbit A, Fleischhacker A, Teter S, Kiley P. ArcA and AppY antagonize IscR repression of hydrogenase-1 expression under anaerobic conditions, revealing a novel mode of O2 regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6892-9 pubmed publisher
    Transcription of the Escherichia coli hydrogenase-1 operon (hyaABCDEF) is increased by the transcription factors ArcA and AppY under anaerobic growth conditions...
  8. Toro Roman A, Mack T, Stock A. Structural analysis and solution studies of the activated regulatory domain of the response regulator ArcA: a symmetric dimer mediated by the alpha4-beta5-alpha5 face. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:11-26 pubmed
    Escherichia coli react to changes from aerobic to anaerobic conditions of growth using the ArcA-ArcB two-component signal transduction system...
  9. Jeong J, Kim Y, Cho N, Shin D, Nam T, Ryu S, et al. Expression of ptsG encoding the major glucose transporter is regulated by ArcA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38513-8 pubmed
    ..phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli, and we found that the anaerobic regulator ArcA specifically binds to the promoters...
  10. Compan I, Touati D. Anaerobic activation of arcA transcription in Escherichia coli: roles of Fnr and ArcA. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:955-64 pubmed
    The ArcA and Fnr regulators of Escherichia coli, both of which are activated in anaerobic conditions, negatively regulate the sodA gene (coding for manganese superoxide dismutase), but Fnr has no effect on anaerobic sodA expression in a ..
  11. Cunningham L, Georgellis D, Green J, Guest J. Co-regulation of lipoamide dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase synthesis in Escherichia coli: characterisation of an ArcA binding site in the lpd promoter. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;169:403-8 pubmed
    ..Here, the transcription start point of the lpd promoter was defined by primer extension analysis, and an ArcA binding site, TGTTAACAAT, overlapping the lpd promoter and matching the consensus at 8 out of 10 positions, was ..
  12. Drapal N, Sawers G. Purification of ArcA and analysis of its specific interaction with the pfl promoter-regulatory region. Mol Microbiol. 1995;16:597-607 pubmed
    b>ArcA is one of several transcription factors required for optimal anaerobic induction of the pyruvate formatelyase (pfl) operon...
  13. Malpica R, Franco B, Rodriguez C, Kwon O, Georgellis D. Identification of a quinone-sensitive redox switch in the ArcB sensor kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13318-23 pubmed
    ..Under anaerobic conditions, the ArcB sensor kinase autophosphorylates and transphosphorylates ArcA, a global transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of numerous operons involved in respiratory or ..
  14. Georgellis D, Lynch A, Lin E. In vitro phosphorylation study of the arc two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5429-35 pubmed
    The ArcB and ArcA proteins constitute a two-component signal transduction system that plays a broad role in transcriptional regulation...
  15. Ogasawara H, Teramoto J, Yamamoto S, Hirao K, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A, et al. Negative regulation of DNA repair gene (uvrA) expression by ArcA/ArcB two-component system in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:243-9 pubmed
    The ArcA/ArcB two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli regulates gene expression in response to the redox conditions of growth. In this study, uvrA gene expression was repressed when ArcA was induced in E. coli...
  16. Iuchi S, Lin E. Purification and phosphorylation of the Arc regulatory components of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5617-23 pubmed
    ..system, consisting of the transmembrane sensor protein ArcB and its cognate cytoplasmic regulatory protein ArcA, controls the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in aerobic respiration...
  17. Alexeeva S, Hellingwerf K, Teixeira De Mattos M. Requirement of ArcA for redox regulation in Escherichia coli under microaerobic but not anaerobic or aerobic conditions. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:204-9 pubmed
    ..Wild-type E. coli and a mutant lacking the ArcA regulator were grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at controlled levels of oxygen availability ranging from ..
  18. Matsushika A, Mizuno T. A dual-signaling mechanism mediated by the ArcB hybrid sensor kinase containing the histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:3973-7 pubmed
    The two components ArcB and ArcA play a crucial role in the signal transduction implicated in the complex transcriptional regulatory network that allows Escherichia coli to sense various respiratory growth conditions...
  19. Jovanovic G, Lloyd L, Stumpf M, Mayhew A, Buck M. Induction and function of the phage shock protein extracytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21147-61 pubmed
    ..Under normal growth conditions PspA and PspD control the level of activity of ArcB/ArcA system that senses the redox/metabolic state of the cell, whereas under stress conditions PspA, PspD, and PspG ..
  20. Georgellis D, Kwon O, Lin E. Amplification of signaling activity of the arc two-component system of Escherichia coli by anaerobic metabolites. An in vitro study with different protein modules. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35950-4 pubmed
    ..This system consists of ArcB as the membrane-associated sensor kinase and ArcA as the cytoplasmic response regulator...
  21. Lee Y, Han J, Jeon Y, Hwang D. The arc two-component signal transduction system inhibits in vitro Escherichia coli chromosomal initiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9917-23 pubmed
    ..signal transduction system, termed Arc, that consists of ArcB protein, a transmembrane sensor kinase and ArcA protein, the cognate response regulator...
  22. Partridge J, Sanguinetti G, Dibden D, Roberts R, Poole R, Green J. Transition of Escherichia coli from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions involves fast and slow reacting regulatory components. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11230-7 pubmed
    ..that the response of the direct oxygen sensor FNR was rapid and overshot, whereas the indirect oxygen sensor ArcA reacted more slowly...
  23. Matsubara M, Kitaoka S, Takeda S, Mizuno T. Tuning of the porin expression under anaerobic growth conditions by his-to-Asp cross-phosphorelay through both the EnvZ-osmosensor and ArcB-anaerosensor in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 2000;5:555-69 pubmed
    ..coli anaerobiosis. The proposed model is a clear example of the interplay of two distinct His-to-Asp phosphorelay signalling pathways. ..
  24. Favorov A, Gelfand M, Gerasimova A, Ravcheev D, Mironov A, Makeev V. A Gibbs sampler for identification of symmetrically structured, spaced DNA motifs with improved estimation of the signal length. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:2240-5 pubmed
    ..In the examples studied, ArcA binding sites were demonstrated to have the structure of a direct spaced repeat, whereas NarP binding sites ..
  25. Salmon K, Hung S, Steffen N, Krupp R, Baldi P, Hatfield G, et al. Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12: effects of oxygen availability and ArcA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15084-96 pubmed
    ..A genomic study of E. coli was undertaken to identify other potential targets of oxygen and ArcA regulation. A group of 175 genes generated from this study and our previous study on oxygen regulation (Salmon, K...
  26. Iuchi S, Aristarkhov A, Dong J, Taylor J, Lin E. Effects of nitrate respiration on expression of the Arc-controlled operons encoding succinate dehydrogenase and flavin-linked L-lactate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1695-701 pubmed
    ..initiated by autophosphorylation of the sensor protein ArcB, followed by phosphoryl group transfer to the regulator ArcA. ArcA-P, a global transcriptional regulator, then prevents sdh and lct expression...
  27. Liu X, De Wulf P. Probing the ArcA-P modulon of Escherichia coli by whole genome transcriptional analysis and sequence recognition profiling. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12588-97 pubmed
    The ArcB/ArcA two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli regulates gene expression in response to the redox conditions of growth...
  28. Pellicer M, Lynch A, De Wulf P, Boyd D, Aguilar J, Lin E. A mutational study of the ArcA-P binding sequences in the aldA promoter of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:170-6 pubmed
    The aldA gene (encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase) of Escherichia coli is anaerobically repressed by ArcA-P, the phosphorylated response regulator of the ArcB/A two-component signal transduction system...
  29. Iuchi S. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the receiver module at the conserved aspartate residue controls transphosphorylation activity of histidine kinase in sensor protein ArcB of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23972-80 pubmed
    ..sensor protein, ArcB, recognizes anaerobic environments and signals the information to the cognate regulator, ArcA. This in vitro study presents the process and control of the signal-transduction phosphorylation...
  30. Gunsalus R, Park S. Aerobic-anaerobic gene regulation in Escherichia coli: control by the ArcAB and Fnr regulons. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:437-50 pubmed
    ..The cell has two distinctly different transcriptional regulators, consisting of the Fnr and the ArcA/ArcB regulatory proteins to accomplish this task...
  31. Bekker M, Alexeeva S, Laan W, Sawers G, Teixeira de Mattos J, Hellingwerf K. The ArcBA two-component system of Escherichia coli is regulated by the redox state of both the ubiquinone and the menaquinone pool. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:746-54 pubmed publisher regulation of ArcB activation, as determined using a lacZ reporter specifically responsive to phosphorylated ArcA. Our results indicate that upon deletion of a ubiquinone biosynthetic enzyme, regulation of ArcB in the anaerobic-..
  32. Wyborn N, Messenger S, Henderson R, Sawers G, Roberts R, Attwood M, et al. Expression of the Escherichia coli yfiD gene responds to intracellular pH and reduces the accumulation of acidic metabolic end products. Microbiology. 2002;148:1015-26 pubmed
    ..The anaerobic transcription factor FNR was confirmed as the major regulator of yfiD expression, and ArcA was found to enhance anaerobic yfiD expression, probably by displacing a repressing FNR dimer in the -93 small ..
  33. Cotter P, Melville S, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Aerobic regulation of cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon expression in Escherichia coli: roles of Fnr and ArcA in repression and activation. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:605-15 pubmed
    ..Expression of the cydAB operon is microaerobically controlled by the ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system and by Fnr...
  34. Lynch A, Lin E. Transcriptional control mediated by the ArcA two-component response regulator protein of Escherichia coli: characterization of DNA binding at target promoters. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:6238-49 pubmed
    b>ArcA protein bearing an amino-terminal, oligohistidine extension has been purified, and its DNA binding activity has been characterized with or without prior incubation with carbamoyl phosphate...
  35. Ruiz J, Fernández R, Nikel P, Méndez B, Pettinari M. dye (arc) Mutants: insights into an unexplained phenotype and its suppression by the synthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli recombinants. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;258:55-60 pubmed
    b>arcA codes for a central regulator in Escherichia coli that responds to redox conditions of growth. Mutations in this gene, originally named dye, confer sensitivity to toluidine blue and other redox dyes...
  36. Verhamme D, Arents J, Postma P, Crielaard W, Hellingwerf K. Investigation of in vivo cross-talk between key two-component systems of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2002;148:69-78 pubmed
    ..UhpT expression was demonstrated when cells were grown on pyruvate, through non-cognate phosphorylation of UhpA by acetyl phosphate. ..
  37. Brynildsen M, Liao J. An integrated network approach identifies the isobutanol response network of Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:277 pubmed publisher
    ..NCA revealed profound perturbations to respiration. Further investigation showed ArcA as an important mediator of this response...
  38. Tiwari N, Woods L, Haley R, Kight A, Goforth R, Clark K, et al. Identification and characterization of native proteins of Escherichia coli BL-21 that display affinity towards Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography and Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Matrices. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..coli strain(s) deficient in certain genomic proteins, and the design of an IMAC-HIC affinity tail for recombinant protein isolation based on the very proteins deleted from the genome. ..
  39. Silverman P, Rother S, Gaudin H. Arc and Sfr functions of the Escherichia coli K-12 arcA gene product are genetically and physiologically separable. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5648-52 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli arcA gene product regulates chromosomal gene expression in response to deprivation of oxygen (Arc function; Arc stands for aerobic respiration control) and is required for expression of the F plasmid DNA transfer (tra)..
  40. Lin E, Iuchi S. Regulation of gene expression in fermentative and respiratory systems in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1991;25:361-87 pubmed
  41. Buxton R, Drury L. Identification of the dye gene product, mutational loss of which alters envelope protein composition and also affects sex factor F expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:241-7 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested ( Gaffney et al. 1983) that the dye (= sfrA ) gene product is necessary for F-factor expression because it is required for translocation of the F-factor TraJ ..
  42. Nikel P, Zhu J, San K, Méndez B, Bennett G. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli creB and arcA mutants reveals shared control of carbon catabolism under microaerobic growth conditions. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5538-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it was observed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions operated in a rather cyclic fashion under our experimental conditions, with reduced activity in the mutant strains. ..
  43. Loui C, Chang A, Lu S. Role of the ArcAB two-component system in the resistance of Escherichia coli to reactive oxygen stress. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:183 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, however, its role in aerobic conditions is not well characterized. We have previously reported that ArcA was necessary for Salmonella to resist reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aerobic conditions...
  44. van der Rest M, Frank C, Molenaar D. Functions of the membrane-associated and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases in the citric acid cycle of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6892-9 pubmed
    ..reporter fused to the promoter of the mqo gene indicate that its transcription is regulated by the ArcA-ArcB two-component system. In contrast to earlier reports, MDH did not repress mqo expression...
  45. Jiang F, An C, Bao Y, Zhao X, Jernigan R, Lithio A, et al. ArcA Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, and Motility Contributing to the Pathogenicity of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2015;83:3545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed that ArcA (aerobic respiratory control), a global regulator important for E...
  46. Iuchi S, Chepuri V, Fu H, Gennis R, Lin E. Requirement for terminal cytochromes in generation of the aerobic signal for the arc regulatory system in Escherichia coli: study utilizing deletions and lac fusions of cyo and cyd. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6020-5 pubmed
    ..A mutation in either the sensor gene arcB or the pleiotropic regulator gene arcA almost abolishes the anaerobic repression...
  47. Colloms S, Alen C, Sherratt D. The ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli is essential for Xer site-specific recombination at psi. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:521-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli, which mediates adaptation to anaerobic growth conditions, ..
  48. Gonidakis S, Finkel S, Longo V. Lifespan extension and paraquat resistance in a ubiquinone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant depend on transcription factors ArcA and TdcA. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3:291-303 pubmed the superoxide-generating agent paraquat, is partially dependent on the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA. A microarray analysis revealed several genes whose expression is either suppressed or enhanced by ArcA in the ubiG ..
  49. Krishnamoorthy G, Tikhonova E, Zgurskaya H. Fitting periplasmic membrane fusion proteins to inner membrane transporters: mutations that enable Escherichia coli AcrA to function with Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexB. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:691-8 pubmed
    ..This flexibility in the association between components affects the transport efficiency of RND pumps. ..
  50. Feng Y, Cronan J. Overlapping repressor binding sites result in additive regulation of Escherichia coli FadH by FadR and ArcA. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation by three independent regulators, the fatty acid degradation FadR repressor, the oxygen-responsive ArcA-ArcB two-component system, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein-cyclic AMP (CRP-cAMP) complex...
  51. Kim S, Han Y, Kim I, Kim H. Involvement of ArcA and Fnr in expression of Escherichia coli thiol peroxidase gene. IUBMB Life. 1999;48:215-8 pubmed
    ..Anaerobic expression of tpx-lacZ in either (delta)arcA or delta(fnr) strains was 2.5-fold depressed compared with that of the wild-type strain...
  52. Sawers G, Suppmann B. Anaerobic induction of pyruvate formate-lyase gene expression is mediated by the ArcA and FNR proteins. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3474-8 pubmed
    ..The residual anaerobic induction could be shown to be imparted by the transcriptional regulator ArcA; an arcA fnr double mutant was incapable of inducing pfl transcription anaerobically...
  53. Pettinari M, Nikel P, Ruiz J, Méndez B. ArcA redox mutants as a source of reduced bioproducts. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;15:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis, RT-PCR and phenotypic arrays enabled the elucidation of a repertoire of operons coordinated by ArcA which extended beyond respiration control including, among others, those which code for survival, chromosome ..
  54. Hassan H, Sun H. Regulatory roles of Fnr, Fur, and Arc in expression of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3217-21 pubmed
    ..Strains harboring simultaneous mutations in arcA/B and fur expressed sodA-lacZ under anaerobic growth conditions but were still inducible by iron chelators...
  55. Waegeman H, Beauprez J, Moens H, Maertens J, De Mey M, Foulquié Moreno M, et al. Effect of iclR and arcA knockouts on biomass formation and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli K12 and its implications on understanding the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local ..
  56. Kato Y, Sugiura M, Mizuno T, Aiba H. Effect of the arcA mutation on the expression of flagella genes in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:77-83 pubmed
    ..coli, and determined that the arcA mutant showed the motility-defective phenotype...
  57. Alvarez A, Malpica R, Contreras M, Escamilla E, Georgellis D. Cytochrome d but not cytochrome o rescues the toluidine blue growth sensitivity of arc mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arc (anoxic redox control) two-component signal transduction system, consisting of the ArcB sensor kinase and the ArcA response regulator, allows adaptive responses of Escherichia coli to changes of O(2) availability...
  58. Govantes F, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon: roles of multiple promoters and the Fnr-1 and Fnr-2 binding sites. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1456-69 pubmed
    ..The sensor-regulator pair, ArcB-ArcA, is responsible for the microaerobic activation of the cydAB operon, whereas the anaerobic regulator Fnr represses ..
  59. Park D, Akhtar M, Ansari A, Landick R, Kiley P. The bacterial response regulator ArcA uses a diverse binding site architecture to regulate carbon oxidation globally. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003839 pubmed publisher
    ..electron carriers is regulated at the level of gene expression by mapping the regulon of the response regulator ArcA from Escherichia coli, which responds to the quinone/quinol redox couple via its membrane-bound sensor kinase, ArcB...
  60. Nikel P, de Almeida A, Pettinari M, Méndez B. The legacy of HfrH: mutations in the two-component system CreBC are responsible for the unusual phenotype of an Escherichia coli arcA mutant. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3404-7 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibit a higher respiratory rate, enhanced glucose consumption, and a more-reduced intracellular redox state than arcA deletion mutants of a different lineage...
  61. McGuire A, De Wulf P, Church G, Lin E. A weight matrix for binding recognition by the redox-response regulator ArcA-P of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:219-21 pubmed
  62. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  63. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  64. Huvet M, Toni T, Tan H, Jovanovic G, Engl C, Buck M, et al. Model-based evolutionary analysis: the natural history of phage-shock stress response. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:762-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We use the specific example of the phage-shock stress response, which has been well characterized in Escherichia coli, to elucidate patterns of gene sharing and sequence conservation across bacterial species. ..
  65. Kohanski M, Dwyer D, Wierzbowski J, Cottarel G, Collins J. Mistranslation of membrane proteins and two-component system activation trigger antibiotic-mediated cell death. Cell. 2008;135:679-90 pubmed publisher
  66. Ravcheev D, Gerasimova A, Mironov A, Gelfand M. Comparative genomic analysis of regulation of anaerobic respiration in ten genomes from three families of gamma-proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:54 pubmed
    ..Thus, in E. coli, global control of respiration is mediated by four transcription factors, Fnr, ArcA, NarL and NarP...