araC

Summary

Gene Symbol: araC
Description: ara regulon transcriptional activator; autorepressor
Alias: ECK0065, JW0063
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     araC

Top Publications

  1. Stoner C, Schleif R. Is the amino acid but not the nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli araC gene conserved?. J Mol Biol. 1982;154:649-52 pubmed
  2. Eustance R, Bustos S, Schleif R. Reaching out. Locating and lengthening the interdomain linker in AraC protein. J Mol Biol. 1994;242:330-8 pubmed
    ..Such a region was found to include positions 171 to 178 in the Escherichia coli regulatory protein AraC. Independent biochemical methods identified amino acid residues 11 to 170 as the minimal dimerization domain of ..
  3. Haggerty D, Oeschger M, Schleif R. In vivo titration of araC protein. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:775-81 pubmed
    The requirement for araC protein in the induction of the araBAD operon was investigated...
  4. Irr J, Englesberg E. Nonsense mutants in the regulator gene araC of the L-arabinose system of Escherichia coli B-r. Genetics. 1970;65:27-39 pubmed
  5. Heffernan L, Wilcox G. Effect of araC gene product on catabolite repression in the L-arabinose regulon. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:1132-5 pubmed
    The araCi protein differs in stability from araC+ protein and alters the concentration of cyclic adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate required to maximally stimulate L-arabinose isomerase synthesis in an in vitro protein-synthesizing system.
  6. Hahn S, Dunn T, Schleif R. Upstream repression and CRP stimulation of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon. J Mol Biol. 1984;180:61-72 pubmed
    ..a mutant PBAD promoter (cip-5) that is expressed in the absence of the two proteins required for PBAD induction, AraC protein and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP-cAMP)...
  7. Lee N, Gielow W, Wallace R. Mechanism of araC autoregulation and the domains of two overlapping promoters, Pc and PBAD, in the L-arabinose regulatory region of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:752-6 pubmed
    The DNA-protein contact sites in the ara regulatory region, which contains the promoters for araBAD and araC, have been determined for araC protein, the cyclic AMP-binding protein, and RNA polymerase, by using the methylation protection ..
  8. Brown C, Hogg R. A second transport system for L-arabinose in Escherichia coli B-r controlled by the araC gene. J Bacteriol. 1972;111:606-13 pubmed
    Escherichia coli B/r possesses two active transport systems for l-arabinose, both of which are regulated by araC, the regulatory gene for the l-arabinose operon...
  9. Lee N, Wilcox G, Gielow W, Arnold J, Cleary P, Englesberg E. In vitro activation of the transcription of araBAD operon by araC activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:634-8 pubmed
    The transcription of araBAD operon requires araC activator and cyclic AMP. D-Fucose inhibits ara mRNA synthesis. Our results indicate that the positive control by araC activator is exerted at the level of transcription.

More Information

Publications89

  1. Brunelle A, Hendrickson W, Schleif R. Altered DNA contacts made by a mutant AraC protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:5019-26 pubmed
    Mutant AraC proteins were selected for their ability to induce but not to repress, or their ability to repress but not to induce the araBAD operon...
  2. Soisson S, MacDougall Shackleton B, Schleif R, Wolberger C. The 1.6 A crystal structure of the AraC sugar-binding and dimerization domain complexed with D-fucose. J Mol Biol. 1997;273:226-37 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the sugar-binding and dimerization domain of the Escherichia coli gene regulatory protein, AraC, has been determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor D-fucose at pH 5.5 to a resolution of 1.6 A...
  3. Seabold R, Schleif R. Apo-AraC actively seeks to loop. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:529-38 pubmed
    In the absence of arabinose and interactions with other proteins, AraC, the activator-repressor that regulates the araBAD operon in Escherichia coli, was found to prefer participating in DNA looping interactions between the two well-..
  4. Reed W, Schleif R. Hemiplegic mutations in AraC protein. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:417-25 pubmed
    We have isolated mutations in AraC protein that specifically block either induction or repression at the ara pBAD promoter...
  5. Kaplan S, Schleif R. Excision of bacteriophage lambda from a site in the arabinose B gene. J Bacteriol. 1975;124:1403-10 pubmed
    ..The excision end points of 62 independently isolated, nondefective araC-transducing phage containing less than the entire araC gene were genetically determined and were found to be ..
  6. Lu Y, Flaherty C, Hendrickson W. AraC protein contacts asymmetric sites in the Escherichia coli araFGH promoter. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24848-57 pubmed
    b>AraC protein regulates the transcription of arabinose transport and catabolic operons in Escherichia coli through interaction with specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of the operons...
  7. Martin K, Huo L, Schleif R. The DNA loop model for ara repression: AraC protein occupies the proposed loop sites in vivo and repression-negative mutations lie in these same sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3654-8 pubmed
    ..First, dimethyl sulfate methylation protection measurements on normally growing cells show that the AraC regulatory protein occupies the araI site in the presence and absence of the inducer arabinose...
  8. Steffen D, Schleif R. Overproducing araC protein with lambda-arabinose transducing phage. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;157:333-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage lambda-arabinose transducing phage were tested as sources of araC protein...
  9. Wallace R, Lee N, Fowler A. The araC gene of Escherichia coli: transcriptional and translational start-points and complete nucleotide sequence. Gene. 1980;12:179-90 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli araC gene and flanking regions have been determined from a series of overlapping fragments using the technique of base-specific chemical cleavage of Maxam and Gilbert (1980)...
  10. Ghosh M, Schleif R. Stabilizing C-terminal tails on AraC. Proteins. 2001;42:177-81 pubmed
    ..to the C-terminus of the dimerization domain of the regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli arabinose operon, AraC. Genetic scoring utilized the trans dominant negative effect of the dimerization domain on the activity of intact ..
  11. Carra J, Schleif R. Formation of AraC-DNA sandwiches. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:435-8 pubmed
    With the use of special DNA binding sites, but not the natural aral binding site, the dimeric AraC protein can be forced to make sandwich structures in which two DNA molecules are joined by two AraC protein dimers...
  12. Ghosh M, Schleif R. Biophysical evidence of arm-domain interactions in AraC. Anal Biochem. 2001;295:107-12 pubmed
    ..of the interaction between the N-terminal arm and the remainder of the dimerization domain in the Escherichia coli AraC protein, the regulator of the l-arabinose operon...
  13. Cole S, Schleif R. A new and unexpected domain-domain interaction in the AraC protein. Proteins. 2012;80:1465-75 pubmed publisher
    An interaction between the dimerization domains and DNA binding domains of the dimeric AraC protein has previously been shown to facilitate repression of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon by AraC in the absence of arabinose...
  14. Gallegos M, Michan C, Ramos J. The XylS/AraC family of regulators. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:807-10 pubmed
    At least twenty-seven proteins belong to the XylS/AraC family of prokaryote transcriptional regulators. All members of this family except CelD and TetD are positive transcriptional factors...
  15. Beverin S, Sheppard D, Park S. D-Fucose as a gratuitous inducer of the L-arabinose operon in strains of Escherichia coli B-r mutant in gene araC. J Bacteriol. 1971;107:79-86 pubmed
    ..Mutations giving rise to d-fucose resistance map in gene araC and result in constitutive expression of the l-arabinose operon...
  16. Stoner C, Schleif R. Transcription start site and induction kinetics of the araC regulatory gene in Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1983;170:1049-53 pubmed
    The in vivo transcription start site of the araC message was determined by S1 nuclease mapping of hybrids formed between labeled DNA, and RNA extracted from cells grown under a variety of physiological conditions, including the interval ..
  17. Rodgers M, Schleif R. Solution structure of the DNA binding domain of AraC protein. Proteins. 2009;77:202-8 pubmed publisher
    We report the solution structure of the DNA binding domain of the Escherichia coli regulatory protein AraC determined in the absence of DNA...
  18. Nathanson N, Schleif R. Novel mutation to dominant fucose resistance in the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1973;115:711-3 pubmed
    We isolated an unusual mutant in which the arabinose operon carried an araC lesion that led to a dominant fucose resistance while retaining recessive constitutivity...
  19. Kolodrubetz D, Schleif R. Regulation of the L-arabinose transport operons in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1981;151:215-27 pubmed
  20. Soisson S, MacDougall Shackleton B, Schleif R, Wolberger C. Structural basis for ligand-regulated oligomerization of AraC. Science. 1997;276:421-5 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of the arabinose-binding and dimerization domain of the Escherchia coli gene regulatory protein AraC was determined in the presence and absence of L-arabinose. The 1...
  21. Cass L, Wilcox G. Novel activation of araC expression and a DNA site required for araC autoregulation in Escherichia coli B/r. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4174-80 pubmed
    Mutations in the araC gene have been isolated which alter both the activator and autoregulatory functions of AraC protein (L.G. Cass and G. Wilcox, J. Bacteriol. 166:892-900, 1986)...
  22. Eustance R, Schleif R. In vivo association of protein fragments giving active AraC. Proteins. 1996;25:501-5 pubmed
    Frameshift mutations in a restricted portion of the arabinose operon regulatory gene araC from Escherichia coli give rise to active AraC protein, likely from the in vivo synthesis of two incomplete fragments that are active together...
  23. Brunelle A, Schleif R. Determining residue-base interactions between AraC protein and araI DNA. J Mol Biol. 1989;209:607-22 pubmed
    ..candidate residue-base interactions lost by mutants of Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon regulatory protein, AraC, to one of its binding sites, araI...
  24. Megerle J, Fritz G, Gerland U, Jung K, Rädler J. Timing and dynamics of single cell gene expression in the arabinose utilization system. Biophys J. 2008;95:2103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the idea that the heterogeneous timing of gene induction is causally related to a broad distribution of uptake proteins at the time of sugar addition. ..
  25. Hendrickson W, Schleif R. A dimer of AraC protein contacts three adjacent major groove regions of the araI DNA site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:3129-33 pubmed
    Contact sites of AraC protein to the regulatory site araI of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon have been determined by the chemical-interference technique...
  26. Lee N, Francklyn C, Hamilton E. Arabinose-induced binding of AraC protein to araI2 activates the araBAD operon promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8814-8 pubmed
    The state of Escherichia coli araI DNA occupancy by AraC protein has been found to change from a two-turn to a four-turn occupancy upon the addition of the inducer arabinose...
  27. Lee D, Schleif R. In vivo DNA loops in araCBAD: size limits and helical repeat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:476-80 pubmed
    Formation of a DNA loop by AraC proteins bound at the araI and araO2 sites, whose center-to-center distance is 211 base pairs, is necessary for repression of the araBAD promoter, PBAD, of Escherichia coli...
  28. Lowe M, Gullotti D, Damjanovic A, Cheng A, Dirla S, Schleif R. Computational and experimental investigation of constitutive behavior in AraC. Proteins. 2014;82:3385-96 pubmed publisher
    Many mutations in the N-terminal arm of AraC result in constitutive behavior in which transcription of the araBAD genes occurs even in the absence of arabinose...
  29. Bustos S, Schleif R. Functional domains of the AraC protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5638-42 pubmed
    The AraC protein, which regulates the L-arabinose operons in Escherichia coli, was dissected into two domains that function in chimeric proteins...
  30. Cass L, Wilcox G. Mutations in the araC regulatory gene of Escherichia coli B/r that affect repressor and activator functions of AraC protein. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:892-900 pubmed
    Mutations in the araC gene of Escherichia coli B/r were isolated which alter both activation of the araBAD operon expression and autoregulation...
  31. Eustance R, Schleif R. The linker region of AraC protein. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:7025-30 pubmed
    b>AraC protein, a transcriptional regulator of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli, is dimeric. Each monomer consists of a domain for DNA binding plus transcription activation and a domain for dimerization plus arabinose binding...
  32. Frato K, Schleif R. A DNA-assisted binding assay for weak protein-protein interactions. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the predicted weak interaction between two domains of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon regulatory protein AraC. The interaction between domains has the expected magnitude (K(d)=0.37 mM) in the absence of arabinose...
  33. Wilcox G, Boulter J, Lee N. Direction of transcription of the regulatory gene araC in Escherichia coli B-r. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:3635-9 pubmed
    The protein product of the regulatory gene araC can be synthesized in a cell-free, protein-synthesizing system programmed with a lambdaparaC(+)B DNA template...
  34. Singer J, Englesberg E. Arabinose transport in araC- strains of Escherichia B-r. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971;249:498-505 pubmed
  35. Weldon J, Rodgers M, Larkin C, Schleif R. Structure and properties of a truely apo form of AraC dimerization domain. Proteins. 2007;66:646-54 pubmed
    The arabinose-binding pockets of wild type AraC dimerization domains crystallized in the absence of arabinose are occupied with the side chains of Y31 from neighboring domains...
  36. Hendrickson W, Schleif R. Regulation of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon studied by gel electrophoresis DNA binding assay. J Mol Biol. 1984;178:611-28 pubmed
    ..repression were studied by observing the multiple interactions of RNA polymerase, cyclic AMP receptor protein and araC protein with short DNA fragments containing either the araC or araBAD promoter regions...
  37. Sheppard D, Eleuterio M, Falgout B. Interaction between mutant alleles of araC of the Escherichia coli B/r L-arabinose operon. J Bacteriol. 1979;139:1085-8 pubmed
    Strains were constructed that contain mutational alterations affecting two distinct functional domains within the araC gene protein...
  38. Dunn T, Schleif R. Deletion analysis of the Escherichia coli ara PC and PBAD promoters. J Mol Biol. 1984;180:201-4 pubmed
    ..Similarly, deletions entering this site from the PBAD side reduced activity of the PC promoter. Cyclic AMP receptor protein bound at this site apparently functions to stimulate transcription of both flanking promoters. ..
  39. Hahn S, Hendrickson W, Schleif R. Transcription of Escherichia coli ara in vitro. The cyclic AMP receptor protein requirement for PBAD induction that depends on the presence and orientation of the araO2 site. J Mol Biol. 1986;188:355-67 pubmed
    ..At lower concentrations of AraC protein and slightly different conditions than those used in the above-mentioned experiments, CRP does stimulate ..
  40. Huo L, Martin K, Schleif R. Alternative DNA loops regulate the arabinose operon in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:5444-8 pubmed
    ..araCBAD regulatory region of Escherichia coli contains two divergently oriented promoters and three sites to which AraC, the regulatory protein of the operon, can bind...
  41. Martin K, Schleif R. Equilibrium DNA-binding of AraC protein. Compensation for displaced ions. J Mol Biol. 1987;195:741-4 pubmed
    Experiments on the AraC regulatory protein of Escherichia coli suggest a mechanism that DNA-binding proteins can use to reduce potentially drastic alterations in their affinity for DNA resulting from changes in salt concentration...
  42. Hirsh J, Schleif R. The araC promoter: transcription, mapping and interaction with the araBAD promoter. Cell. 1977;11:545-50 pubmed
    The start sites of the araC and araBAD gene messenger of E. coli were located by transcription in vitro from short DNA fragments, by high magnification electron microscopy and by genetic mapping...
  43. Casadaban M. Regulation of the regulatory gene for the arabinose pathway, araC. J Mol Biol. 1976;104:557-66 pubmed
  44. Weldon J, Schleif R. Specific interactions by the N-terminal arm inhibit self-association of the AraC dimerization domain. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2828-35 pubmed
    Deletion of the regulatory N-terminal arms of the AraC protein from its dimerization domain fragments increases the susceptibility of the dimerization domain to form a series of higher order polymers by indefinite self-association...
  45. Gryczynski U, Schleif R. A portable allosteric mechanism. Proteins. 2004;57:9-11 pubmed
    The allosteric mechanism by which the gene expression regulatory protein AraC regulates its DNA-binding activity is shown to be portable by grafting it to beta-galactosidase, generating an arabinose-regulated beta-galactosidase...
  46. Wilcox G. The interaction of L-arabinose and D-fucose with AraC protein. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:6892-4 pubmed
  47. Katz L. Selection of araB and araC mutants of Escherichia coli B-r by resistance to ribitol. J Bacteriol. 1970;102:593-5 pubmed
    The growth of strain araC(c)67, which produces the enzymes of the ara operon constitutively, is inhibited by the addition of ribitol. Isolation of strains resistant to ribitol yields mutants of either the araB or araC genes...
  48. Menon K, Lee N. Activation of ara operons by a truncated AraC protein does not require inducer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3708-12 pubmed
    The araC gene of Escherichia coli encodes a protein that binds the inducer L-arabinose to activate the transcription of three ara operons...
  49. Wilcox G, Meuris P. Stabilization and size of araC protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1976;145:97-100 pubmed
    b>AraC protein from Escherichia coli has been further stabilized and characterized. pH is a critical variable in conferring stability. araC protein has a sedimentation coefficient of 4.0 +/- 0.2s on standardized 5%-20% glycerol gradients...
  50. Cass L, Horwitz A, Miyada C, Greenfield L, Wilcox G. The araC regulatory gene mRNA contains a leader sequence. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;180:219-26 pubmed
    An estimation of the size of the araC gene in Escherichila coli B/r was made by sub-cloning restriction fragments of the araC-containing hybrid plasmid pTB1 into the plasmid pBR322...
  51. Lee S, Chou H, Pfleger B, Newman J, Yoshikuni Y, Keasling J. Directed evolution of AraC for improved compatibility of arabinose- and lactose-inducible promoters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5711-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate the directed evolution of AraC to construct an arabinose-inducible (P(BAD)) system that is more compatible with IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-1-..
  52. Carter A, Pearson B, Dickinson J, Lancashire W. Sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 edd and eda genes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Gene. 1993;130:155-6 pubmed
    ..These data are compared with those of Egan et al. [J. Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 4638-4646] and important differences were noted. ..
  53. Gallegos M, Schleif R, Bairoch A, Hofmann K, Ramos J. Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61:393-410 pubmed
    ..Most regulators belonging to the AraC/XylS family recognize multiple binding sites in the regulated promoters...
  54. Steffen D, Schleif R. The arabinose C gene product of Escherichia coli B-r is hyperlabile in a cell free protein synthesis system. Mol Gen Genet. 1974;128:93-4 pubmed
  55. Dunn T, Hahn S, Ogden S, Schleif R. An operator at -280 base pairs that is required for repression of araBAD operon promoter: addition of DNA helical turns between the operator and promoter cyclically hinders repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5017-20 pubmed
    ..In vitro protection studies with DNase I and dimethylsulfate showed that araC protein can specifically bind in this area to nucleotides lying at position -265 to -294 with respect to the araBAD ..
  56. Rodgers M, Holder N, Dirla S, Schleif R. Functional modes of the regulatory arm of AraC. Proteins. 2009;74:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The arms have also been shown to interact with the DNA binding domains of AraC by their requirement for the immobilization of the DNA binding domains that is necessary for DNA looping and ..
  57. Guzman L, Belin D, Carson M, Beckwith J. Tight regulation, modulation, and high-level expression by vectors containing the arabinose PBAD promoter. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4121-30 pubmed
    ..of the araBAD (arabinose) operon and the gene encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter, araC. Using the phoA gene and phoA fusions to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/..
  58. Nathanson N, Schleif R. Paucity of sites mutable to constitutivity in the araC activator gene of the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1975;96:185-99 pubmed
  59. Gross J, Englesberg E. Determination of the order of mutational sites governing L-arabinose utilization in Escherichia coli B/r bv transduction with phage Plbt. Virology. 1959;9:314-31 pubmed
  60. Malaga F, Mayberry O, Park D, Rodgers M, Toptygin D, Schleif R. A genetic and physical study of the interdomain linker of E. Coli AraC protein--a trans-subunit communication pathway. Proteins. 2016;84:448-60 pubmed publisher
    Genetic experiments with full length AraC and biophysical experiments with its dimerization domain plus linker suggest that arabinose binding to the dimerization domain changes the properties of the inter-domain linker which connects the ..
  61. Steffen D, Schleif R. In vitro construction of plasmids which result in overproduction of the protein product of the araC gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;157:341-4 pubmed
    ..coli fused to the araC gene of E. coli. E...
  62. Laronde Leblanc N, Wolberger C. Characterization of the oligomeric states of wild type and mutant AraC. Biochemistry. 2000;39:11593-601 pubmed
    b>AraC regulates transcription of the Escherichia coli arabinose operon, binding tandem DNA half-sites in the presence of arabinose and widely spaced half-sites in the absence of arabinose...
  63. Irr J, Englesberg E. Control of expression of the L-arabinose operon in temperature-sensitive mutants of gene araC in Escherichia coli B-r. J Bacteriol. 1971;105:136-41 pubmed
    Expression of the l-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli B/r is dependent on the temperature of growth of the araC mutants reported in this paper...
  64. Seedorff J, Schleif R. Active role of the interdomain linker of AraC. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5737-46 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the interdomain linker of the gene for the AraC regulatory protein of Escherichia coli that severely interfere with the protein's ability either to repress or to activate transcription have been found...
  65. Johnson C, Schleif R. In vivo induction kinetics of the arabinose promoters in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3438-42 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the AraC protein represses transcription from its own promoter, PC, and when associated with arabinose, activates transcription from three other promoters, PBAD, PE, and PFGH...
  66. Lobell R, Schleif R. DNA looping and unlooping by AraC protein. Science. 1990;250:528-32 pubmed
    Expression of the L-arabinose BAD operon in Escherichia coli is regulated by AraC protein which acts both positively in the presence of arabinose to induce transcription and negatively in the absence of arabinose to repress transcription...
  67. Hendrickson W, Stoner C, Schleif R. Characterization of the Escherichia coli araFGH and araJ promoters. J Mol Biol. 1990;215:497-510 pubmed
    ..DNase 1 footprinting revealed that, in comparison with the araBAD and araE promoters, the locations of the AraC and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) binding sites are reversed with CRP lying between AraC and RNA polymerase...
  68. Dirla S, Chien J, Schleif R. Constitutive mutations in the Escherichia coli AraC protein. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2668-74 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli AraC protein represses and induces the araBAD operon in response to the absence or presence of l-arabinose...
  69. Zhang X, Reeder T, Schleif R. Transcription activation parameters at ara pBAD. J Mol Biol. 1996;258:14-24 pubmed
    We studied the formation of open complexes of RNA polymerase and promoter DNA as activated by the AraC protein at the Escherichia coli araBAD promoter pBAD and by the cyclic AMP receptor protein at the galKTE promoter P1...
  70. Schecter J. Suppressed nonsense mutations in the araC gene of Escherichia coli provide three novel variant proteins. J Bacteriol. 1983;154:1329-38 pubmed
    A total of 400 suppressible mutations have been isolated in the araC gene of Escherichia coli...
  71. Kornacker M, Remsburg B, Menzel R. Gene activation by the AraC protein can be inhibited by DNA looping between AraC and a LexA repressor that interacts with AraC: possible applications as a two-hybrid system. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:615-24 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli activator and repressor proteins AraC and LexA bind DNA as homodimers...
  72. Reeder T, Schleif R. AraC protein can activate transcription from only one position and when pointed in only one direction. J Mol Biol. 1993;231:205-18 pubmed
    At the araBAD promoter, the RNA polymerase-proximal half-site for AraC binding partially overlaps the -35 region...
  73. Dhiman A, Schleif R. Recognition of overlapping nucleotides by AraC and the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5076-81 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli promoter p(BAD), under the control of the AraC protein, drives the expression of mRNA encoding the AraB, AraA, and AraD gene products of the arabinose operon...
  74. Johnson C, Schleif R. Cooperative action of the catabolite activator protein and AraC in vitro at the araFGH promoter. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1995-2000 pubmed
    ..of transcription of the araFGH promoter, p(FGH), requires both the catabolite activator protein (CAP) and AraC protein. At p(FGH), the binding site for CAP is centered at position -41...
  75. Saviola B, Seabold R, Schleif R. DNA bending by AraC: a negative mutant. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:4227-32 pubmed
    We sought a mutation in the DNA binding domain of the arabinose operon regulatory protein, AraC, of Escherichia coli that allows the protein to bind DNA normally but not activate transcription...
  76. Saviola B, Seabold R, Schleif R. Arm-domain interactions in AraC. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:539-48 pubmed
    ..deletions extending beyond the sixth amino acid of the Escherichia coli regulator of the l-arabinose operon, AraC, were found to generate constitutive regulatory behavior of the promoter pBAD...
  77. Niland P, Hühne R, Müller Hill B. How AraC interacts specifically with its target DNAs. J Mol Biol. 1996;264:667-74 pubmed
    Previous work indicates that one subunit of the AraC protein dimer binds to a DNA target araI1, of 17 base-pairs...
  78. Englesberg E, Irr J, Power J, Lee N. Positive control of enzyme synthesis by gene C in the L-arabinose system. J Bacteriol. 1965;90:946-57 pubmed
    ..The name "activator gene" is proposed for genes of the C type to accentuate their positive role in gene expression. A working model consistent with these results is presented. ..
  79. Sheppard D, Englesberg E. Further evidence for positive control of the L-arabinose system by gene araC. J Mol Biol. 1967;25:443-54 pubmed
  80. Miyada C, Horwitz A, Cass L, Timko J, Wilcox G. DNA sequence of the araC regulatory gene from Escherichia coli B/r. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980;8:5267-74 pubmed
    The DNA sequence of the araC regulatory gene from Escherichia coli B/r has been determined by the base-specific chemical cleavage reactions of Maxam and Gilbert. An open reading frame is found which codes for a protein of 292 amino acids...