alkB

Summary

Gene Symbol: alkB
Description: oxidative demethylase of N1-methyladenine or N3-methylcytosine DNA lesions
Alias: ECK2204, JW2200, aidD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     alkB

Top Publications

  1. Sedgwick B, Lindahl T. Recent progress on the Ada response for inducible repair of DNA alkylation damage. Oncogene. 2002;21:8886-94 pubmed
  2. Welford R, Kirkpatrick J, McNeill L, Puri M, Oldham N, Schofield C. Incorporation of oxygen into the succinate co-product of iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases from bacteria, plants and humans. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5170-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that five members of the 2OG oxygenase family, AlkB from Escherichia coli, anthocyanidin synthase and flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana, and prolyl ..
  3. Falnes P, Klungland A, Alseth I. Repair of methyl lesions in DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation. Neuroscience. 2007;145:1222-32 pubmed
    ..A few years ago, it was discovered that the E. coli AlkB protein represented an iron and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenase capable of repairing methyl lesions in DNA by a ..
  4. Ougland R, Zhang C, Liiv A, Johansen R, Seeberg E, Hou Y, et al. AlkB restores the biological function of mRNA and tRNA inactivated by chemical methylation. Mol Cell. 2004;16:107-16 pubmed
    ..It was recently demonstrated that the E. coli AlkB protein and a human homolog, hABH3, can demethylate these lesions both in DNA and RNA...
  5. Koivisto P, Robins P, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Demethylation of 3-methylthymine in DNA by bacterial and human DNA dioxygenases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40470-4 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli AlkB and human ABH3 proteins repaired 3-methylthymine in both single-stranded and double-stranded polydeoxynucleotides, ..
  6. Yu B, Hunt J. Enzymological and structural studies of the mechanism of promiscuous substrate recognition by the oxidative DNA repair enzyme AlkB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and crystallographic studies of the mechanisms underlying promiscuous substrate recognition by Escherichia coli AlkB, a DNA repair enzyme that removes methyl adducts and some larger alkylation lesions from endocyclic positions on ..
  7. Mishina Y, Yang C, He C. Direct repair of the exocyclic DNA adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine by the DNA repair AlkB proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:14594-5 pubmed
    The exocyclic DNA base adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) is directly repaired by the AlkB proteins in vitro.
  8. Sundheim O, Vågbø C, Bjørås M, Sousa M, Talstad V, Aas P, et al. Human ABH3 structure and key residues for oxidative demethylation to reverse DNA/RNA damage. EMBO J. 2006;25:3389-97 pubmed
    ..These lesions are directly reversed by ABH3 (hABH3) in humans and AlkB in Escherichia coli...
  9. Trewick S, Henshaw T, Hausinger R, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Oxidative demethylation by Escherichia coli AlkB directly reverts DNA base damage. Nature. 2002;419:174-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the highly conserved AlkB protein repairs DNA alkylation damage by means of an unprecedented mechanism...
  10. Koivisto P, Duncan T, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Minimal methylated substrate and extended substrate range of Escherichia coli AlkB protein, a 1-methyladenine-DNA dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44348-54 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein, and two human homologs ABH2 and ABH3, directly demethylate 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine in DNA...

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. Sedgwick B, Lindahl T. Recent progress on the Ada response for inducible repair of DNA alkylation damage. Oncogene. 2002;21:8886-94 pubmed
  2. Welford R, Kirkpatrick J, McNeill L, Puri M, Oldham N, Schofield C. Incorporation of oxygen into the succinate co-product of iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases from bacteria, plants and humans. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5170-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that five members of the 2OG oxygenase family, AlkB from Escherichia coli, anthocyanidin synthase and flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana, and prolyl ..
  3. Falnes P, Klungland A, Alseth I. Repair of methyl lesions in DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation. Neuroscience. 2007;145:1222-32 pubmed
    ..A few years ago, it was discovered that the E. coli AlkB protein represented an iron and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenase capable of repairing methyl lesions in DNA by a ..
  4. Ougland R, Zhang C, Liiv A, Johansen R, Seeberg E, Hou Y, et al. AlkB restores the biological function of mRNA and tRNA inactivated by chemical methylation. Mol Cell. 2004;16:107-16 pubmed
    ..It was recently demonstrated that the E. coli AlkB protein and a human homolog, hABH3, can demethylate these lesions both in DNA and RNA...
  5. Koivisto P, Robins P, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Demethylation of 3-methylthymine in DNA by bacterial and human DNA dioxygenases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40470-4 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli AlkB and human ABH3 proteins repaired 3-methylthymine in both single-stranded and double-stranded polydeoxynucleotides, ..
  6. Yu B, Hunt J. Enzymological and structural studies of the mechanism of promiscuous substrate recognition by the oxidative DNA repair enzyme AlkB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and crystallographic studies of the mechanisms underlying promiscuous substrate recognition by Escherichia coli AlkB, a DNA repair enzyme that removes methyl adducts and some larger alkylation lesions from endocyclic positions on ..
  7. Mishina Y, Yang C, He C. Direct repair of the exocyclic DNA adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine by the DNA repair AlkB proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:14594-5 pubmed
    The exocyclic DNA base adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) is directly repaired by the AlkB proteins in vitro.
  8. Sundheim O, Vågbø C, Bjørås M, Sousa M, Talstad V, Aas P, et al. Human ABH3 structure and key residues for oxidative demethylation to reverse DNA/RNA damage. EMBO J. 2006;25:3389-97 pubmed
    ..These lesions are directly reversed by ABH3 (hABH3) in humans and AlkB in Escherichia coli...
  9. Trewick S, Henshaw T, Hausinger R, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Oxidative demethylation by Escherichia coli AlkB directly reverts DNA base damage. Nature. 2002;419:174-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the highly conserved AlkB protein repairs DNA alkylation damage by means of an unprecedented mechanism...
  10. Koivisto P, Duncan T, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Minimal methylated substrate and extended substrate range of Escherichia coli AlkB protein, a 1-methyladenine-DNA dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44348-54 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein, and two human homologs ABH2 and ABH3, directly demethylate 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine in DNA...
  11. Yu B, Edstrom W, Benach J, Hamuro Y, Weber P, Gibney B, et al. Crystal structures of catalytic complexes of the oxidative DNA/RNA repair enzyme AlkB. Nature. 2006;439:879-84 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli AlkB and the homologous human proteins ABH2 and ABH3 (refs 5, 7) promiscuously repair DNA and RNA bases damaged by S(N)2 ..
  12. Falnes P. Repair of 3-methylthymine and 1-methylguanine lesions by bacterial and human AlkB proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6260-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein repairs 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) lesions in DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation, a reaction requiring ferrous iron and 2-oxoglutarate as cofactor and co-substrate, ..
  13. Drabløs F, Feyzi E, Aas P, Vaagbø C, Kavli B, Bratlie M, et al. Alkylation damage in DNA and RNA--repair mechanisms and medical significance. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:1389-407 pubmed
    ..g. XPF-ERCC1) for incision and homologous recombination to complete repair. Recently, Escherichia coli protein AlkB and human homologues were shown to be oxidative demethylases that repair cytotoxic 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-..
  14. Frick L, Delaney J, Wong C, Drennan C, Essigmann J. Alleviation of 1,N6-ethanoadenine genotoxicity by the Escherichia coli adaptive response protein AlkB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:755-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that an enzyme mechanistically unrelated to DNA glycosylases, the adaptive response protein AlkB, is capable of acting on EA via its canonical mechanism of oxidative dealkylation...
  15. Sedgwick B. Repairing DNA-methylation damage. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:148-57 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase and the two human homologues, ABH2 and ABH3, represent a novel mechanism of DNA repair...
  16. Yang C, Yi C, Duguid E, Sullivan C, Jian X, Rice P, et al. Crystal structures of DNA/RNA repair enzymes AlkB and ABH2 bound to dsDNA. Nature. 2008;452:961-5 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli AlkB and its human homologues ABH2 and ABH3 repair DNA/RNA base lesions by using a direct oxidative dealkylation mechanism...
  17. Falnes P, Rognes T. DNA repair by bacterial AlkB proteins. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:531-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is an iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, repairing 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine lesions in DNA...
  18. Ringvoll J, Moen M, Nordstrand L, Meira L, Pang B, Bekkelund A, et al. AlkB homologue 2-mediated repair of ethenoadenine lesions in mammalian DNA. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the principal repair system for epsilon A lesions until recently, when it was shown that the Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase could directly reverse the damage...
  19. Mishina Y, He C. Probing the structure and function of the Escherichia coli DNA alkylation repair AlkB protein through chemical cross-linking. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:8730-1 pubmed
    Engineering chemical cross-linking groups at the protein/DNA interface provide a powerful method for probing the putative active site and a damage searching mechanism of the Escherichia coli alkylation DNA repair protein AlkB.
  20. Welford R, Schlemminger I, McNeill L, Hewitson K, Schofield C. The selectivity and inhibition of AlkB. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10157-61 pubmed
    b>AlkB is one of four proteins involved in the adaptive response to DNA alkylation damage in Escherichia coli and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans...
  21. Kim M, Zhou X, Delaney J, Taghizadeh K, Dedon P, Essigmann J, et al. AlkB influences the chloroacetaldehyde-induced mutation spectra and toxicity in the pSP189 supF shuttle vector. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:1075-83 pubmed
    ..b>AlkB, an iron-/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, repairs 1, N (6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (A) and 3, N (4)-..
  22. Delaney J, Smeester L, Wong C, Frick L, Taghizadeh K, Wishnok J, et al. AlkB reverses etheno DNA lesions caused by lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:855-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the newly characterized enzyme AlkB repairs epsilonA and epsilonC...
  23. Dinglay S, Trewick S, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Defective processing of methylated single-stranded DNA by E. coli AlkB mutants. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2097-105 pubmed
    Escherichia coli alkB mutants are very sensitive to DNA methylating agents. Despite these mutants being the subject of many studies, no DNA repair or other function has been assigned to the AlkB protein or to its human homolog...
  24. Delaney J, Essigmann J. Mutagenesis, genotoxicity, and repair of 1-methyladenine, 3-alkylcytosines, 1-methylguanine, and 3-methylthymine in alkB Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14051-6 pubmed
    b>AlkB repairs 1-alkyladenine and 3-methylcytosine lesions in DNA by directly reversing the base damage...
  25. Mishina Y, Chen L, He C. Preparation and characterization of the native iron(II)-containing DNA repair AlkB protein directly from Escherichia coli. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:16930-6 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein was recently found to repair cytotoxic DNA lesions 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by using a novel iron-catalyzed oxidative demethylation mechanism...
  26. Aas P, Otterlei M, Falnes P, Vågbø C, Skorpen F, Akbari M, et al. Human and bacterial oxidative demethylases repair alkylation damage in both RNA and DNA. Nature. 2003;421:859-63 pubmed
    ..including damage reversal by oxidative demethylation of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by Escherichia coli AlkB. By contrast, little is known about consequences and cellular handling of alkylation damage to RNA...
  27. Duncan T, Trewick S, Koivisto P, Bates P, Lindahl T, Sedgwick B. Reversal of DNA alkylation damage by two human dioxygenases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16660-5 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein protects against the cytotoxicity of methylating agents by repair of the DNA lesions 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine, which are generated in single-stranded stretches of DNA...
  28. Falnes P, Johansen R, Seeberg E. AlkB-mediated oxidative demethylation reverses DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2002;419:178-82 pubmed
    The bacterial AlkB protein is known to be involved in cellular recovery from alkylation damage; however, the function of this protein remains unknown...
  29. Falnes P, Bjørås M, Aas P, Sundheim O, Seeberg E. Substrate specificities of bacterial and human AlkB proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3456-61 pubmed
    ..3-methylcytosine (3-meC) residues into nucleic acids, and it was recently demonstrated that the Escherichia coli AlkB protein and two human homologues, hABH2 and hABH3, can remove these lesions from DNA by oxidative demethylation...
  30. Mishina Y, He C. Oxidative dealkylation DNA repair mediated by the mononuclear non-heme iron AlkB proteins. J Inorg Biochem. 2006;100:670-8 pubmed
    ..discovered that some of the alkylation DNA base damage can be directly removed by a family of proteins called the AlkB proteins that utilize a mononuclear non-heme iron(II) and alpha-ketoglutarate as cofactor and cosubstrate...
  31. Kondo H, Nakabeppu Y, Kataoka H, Kuhara S, Kawabata S, Sekiguchi M. Structure and expression of the alkB gene of Escherichia coli related to the repair of alkylated DNA. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:15772-7 pubmed
    When the alkB gene of Escherichia coli that controls sensitivity of bacteria to methyl methanesulfonate was placed under the control of the lac regulatory region on a multicopy plasmid, the gene product, AlkB protein, was overproduced...
  32. Yi C, Yang C, He C. A non-heme iron-mediated chemical demethylation in DNA and RNA. Acc Chem Res. 2009;42:519-29 pubmed publisher
    ..A DNA repair protein in Escherichia coli, AlkB, corrects some of the unwanted methylations of DNA bases by a unique oxidative demethylation in which the methyl ..
  33. Sikora A, Mielecki D, Chojnacka A, Nieminuszczy J, Wrzesinski M, Grzesiuk E. Lethal and mutagenic properties of MMS-generated DNA lesions in Escherichia coli cells deficient in BER and AlkB-directed DNA repair. Mutagenesis. 2010;25:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..bases can be removed by a system of base excision repair (BER) and by oxidative DNA demethylation catalysed by AlkB protein...
  34. Begley T, Samson L. Molecular biology: A fix for RNA. Nature. 2003;421:795-6 pubmed
  35. Bleijlevens B, Shivarattan T, Flashman E, Yang Y, Simpson P, Koivisto P, et al. Dynamic states of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB regulate product release. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:872-7 pubmed publisher
    The 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase AlkB couples the demethylation of modified DNA to the decarboxylation of 2OG...
  36. Maciejewska A, Sokołowska B, Nowicki A, Kuśmierek J. The role of AlkB protein in repair of 1,N?-ethenoadenine in Escherichia coli cells. Mutagenesis. 2011;26:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of vinyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), but eliminates its cytotoxicity, we studied the participation of alkA, alkB and mug gene products in the repair of ?A in Escherichia coli cells...
  37. Nieminuszczy J, Grzesiuk E. Bacterial DNA repair genes and their eukaryotic homologues: 3. AlkB dioxygenase and Ada methyltransferase in the direct repair of alkylated DNA. Acta Biochim Pol. 2007;54:459-68 pubmed
    ..The Ada response includes the expression of four genes: ada, alkA, alkB, and aidB. The product of ada gene, Ada protein, is an activator of transcription of all four genes...
  38. Nigam R, Anindya R. Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein SSB promotes AlkB-mediated DNA dealkylation repair. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:274-279 pubmed publisher
    Repair of alkylation damage in DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity. Escherichia coli (E.coli) protein AlkB removes various alkyl DNA adducts including N1-methyladenine (N1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (N3..
  39. Kataoka H, Sekiguchi M. Molecular cloning and characterization of the alkB gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;198:263-9 pubmed
    ..we constructed hybrid plasmids that can suppress the increased methylmethane sulfonate sensitivity caused by alkB mutation...
  40. Volkert M, Nguyen D, Beard K. Escherichia coli gene induction by alkylation treatment. Genetics. 1986;112:11-26 pubmed
    ..alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada...
  41. Nieminuszczy J, Janion C, Grzesiuk E. Mutator specificity of Escherichia coli alkB117 allele. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53:425-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein encoded by alkB gene was recently found to repair cytotoxic DNA lesions 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) by using a novel iron-catalysed oxidative demethylation mechanism that protects ..
  42. Sundheim O, Talstad V, Vågbø C, Slupphaug G, Krokan H. AlkB demethylases flip out in different ways. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..by base excision repair (BER) and direct repair by a methyltransferase or by an oxidative demethylase of the AlkB type. Yang et al...
  43. Fix D, Canugovi C, Bhagwat A. Transcription increases methylmethane sulfonate-induced mutations in alkB strains of Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The repair of m3C in Escherichia coli is mediated by AlkB through oxidative demethylation and in the absence of repair, m3C leads to base-substitution mutations...
  44. Rebeck G, Coons S, Carroll P, Samson L. A second DNA methyltransferase repair enzyme in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:3039-43 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli ada-alkB operon encodes a 39-kDa protein (Ada) that is a DNA-repair methyltransferase and a 27-kDa protein (AlkB) of unknown function. By DNA blot hybridization analysis we show that the alkylation-sensitive E...
  45. Janion C. [Chemically methylated DNA repair in Escherichia coli--the role of alkB protein]. Postepy Biochem. 2006;52:239-46 pubmed
    ..repaired by proteins and enzymes either permanently present in the cells (Ogt, Ada) or produced transiently (Ada, AlkB, AlkA, Aid), after induction of the Ada defence system...
  46. van den Born E, Bekkelund A, Moen M, Omelchenko M, Klungland A, Falnes P. Bioinformatics and functional analysis define four distinct groups of AlkB DNA-dioxygenases in bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7124-36 pubmed publisher
    The iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase AlkB from Escherichia coli (EcAlkB) repairs alkylation damage in DNA by direct reversal...
  47. Falnes P. RNA repair--the latest addition to the toolbox for macromolecular maintenance. RNA Biol. 2005;2:14-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, recent studies indicate that RNA is also repaired. AlkB proteins, which were initially found to repair chemically alkylated DNA, can also remove alkyl lesions from RNA, ..
  48. Mishina Y, Lee C, He C. Interaction of human and bacterial AlkB proteins with DNA as probed through chemical cross-linking studies. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1548-54 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein was recently found to repair cytotoxic DNA lesions 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by using a novel iron-catalyzed oxidative demethylation mechanism...
  49. Bleijlevens B, Shivarattan T, Sedgwick B, Rigby S, Matthews S. Replacement of non-heme Fe(II) with Cu(II) in the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent DNA repair enzyme AlkB: spectroscopic characterization of the active site. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1043-8 pubmed
    The bacterial DNA repair enzyme AlkB is an alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) dependent non-heme Fe(II) containing dioxygenase. Here we describe, for the first time, the preparation of a Cu(II)-reconstituted form of AlkB in various complexes...
  50. Colombi D, Gomes S. An alkB gene homolog is differentially transcribed during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3139-45 pubmed
    A Caulobacter crescentus alkB gene homolog was identified in a clone previously shown to contain the heat shock genes dnaK and dnaJ; the homolog is located upstream of dnaK and is transcribed in the opposite orientation...
  51. Fram R, Marinus M, Volkert M. Gene expression in E. coli after treatment with streptozotocin. Mutat Res. 1988;198:45-51 pubmed
    ..Induction of aidD, alkA, aidB, and sfiA expression occurs with all 3 agents although at markedly lower concentrations of MNNG and STZ ..
  52. Nieminuszczy J, Sikora A, Wrzesiński M, Janion C, Grzesiuk E. AlkB dioxygenase in preventing MMS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: effect of Pol V and AlkA proteins. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:181-8 pubmed
    The deleterious effect of defective alkB allele encoding 1meA/3meC dioxygenase on reactivation of MMS-treated phage DNA has been frequently studied...
  53. Dinglay S, Gold B, Sedgwick B. Repair in Escherichia coli alkB mutants of abasic sites and 3-methyladenine residues in DNA. Mutat Res. 1998;407:109-16 pubmed
    Escherichia coli alkB mutants are sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate and dimethylsulphate, and are defective in the processing of methylated DNA. The function of the AlkB protein has not been determined...
  54. Smirnova G, Oktyabrsky O, Moshonkina E, Zakirova N. Induction of the alkylation-inducible aidB gene of Escherichia coli by cytoplasmic acidification and N-ethylmaleimide. Mutat Res. 1994;314:51-6 pubmed
    ..influence of thiol reagents on the induction of the DNA damage-inducible genes of Escherichia coli, aidB, alkA, and alkB. Under aerobic conditions in the absence of alkylating agents aidB, but not alkA or alkB, was induced by an ..
  55. Teo I, Sedgwick B, Kilpatrick M, McCarthy T, Lindahl T. The intracellular signal for induction of resistance to alkylating agents in E. coli. Cell. 1986;45:315-24 pubmed
    The E. coli ada gene positively controls its own expression and that of other genes (alkA, alkB, aidB) involved in repair of DNA alkylation damage...
  56. Karkhanina A, Mecinovic J, Musheev M, Krylova S, Petrov A, Hewitson K, et al. Direct analysis of enzyme-catalyzed DNA demethylation. Anal Chem. 2009;81:5871-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We then used this approach to study the kinetics of AlkB-catalyzed DNA demethylation and screen a number of potential inhibitors of this reaction...
  57. Jiricny J. DNA repair: bioinformatics helps reverse methylation damage. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R846-8 pubmed
    Recent work has uncovered a novel DNA repair enzyme: the AlkB protein of Escherichia coli, which oxidises the methyl groups of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine to hydroxymethyl moieties; the oxidised groups are subsequently released ..
  58. Demple B, Sedgwick B, Robins P, Totty N, Waterfield M, Lindahl T. Active site and complete sequence of the suicidal methyltransferase that counters alkylation mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:2688-92 pubmed
    ..These same structural features are present at the active site of thymidylate synthase, suggesting a common chemical mechanism for activation of the cysteine. ..
  59. Kataoka H, Yamamoto Y, Sekiguchi M. A new gene (alkB) of Escherichia coli that controls sensitivity to methyl methane sulfonate. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:1301-7 pubmed
    ..Another mutation was found near nalA, and the gene responsible was named alkB. Its phenotype was different from that of ada, since the alkB mutant exhibited a normal adaptive response to N-..
  60. Fedeles B, Singh V, Delaney J, Li D, Essigmann J. The AlkB Family of Fe(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases: Repairing Nucleic Acid Alkylation Damage and Beyond. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20734-42 pubmed publisher
    The AlkB family of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases is a class of ubiquitous direct reversal DNA repair enzymes that remove alkyl adducts from nucleobases by oxidative dealkylation...
  61. Sedgwick B, Robins P, Lindahl T. Direct removal of alkylation damage from DNA by AlkB and related DNA dioxygenases. Methods Enzymol. 2006;408:108-20 pubmed
    ..and 3-methylcytosine are removed efficiently from DNA by direct damage reversal, catalyzed by the Escherichia coli AlkB protein and its human homologs ABH2 and ABH3...
  62. Vasil eva S, Makhova E, Moshkovskaia E. [Expression and functions of adaptive response genes in Escherichia coli treated with mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents. Interference with SOS response]. Genetika. 1999;35:444-9 pubmed
    ..The functional specificity of the alkA, alkB, and aidB1 genes concerning both the structure and volume of DNA alkylation and the specificity of cell ..
  63. Wei Y, Carter K, Wang R, Shell B. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a human cDNA encoding an Escherichia coli AlkB homolog, a protein involved in DNA alkylation damage repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:931-37 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is involved in protecting cells against mutation and cell death induced specifically by SN2-type alkylating agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)...
  64. Chen B, Carroll P, Samson L. The Escherichia coli AlkB protein protects human cells against alkylation-induced toxicity. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6255-61 pubmed
    ..The alkylation-sensitive phenotype of E. coli alkB mutants marks the alkB pathway as an extremely effective defense mechanism against the cytotoxic effects of the SN2,..
  65. Volkert M, Hajec L. Molecular analysis of the aidD6::Mu d1 (bla lac) fusion mutation of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;229:319-23 pubmed
    ..biochemical evidence indicating that the aidD6::Mu d1 (bla lac) fusion is an insertion of Mu d1 (bla lac) into the alkB coding sequence...
  66. Watanabe K, Ohta T, Watanabe M, Kato T, Shirasu Y. Inhibition of induction of adaptive response by o-vanillin in Escherichia coli B. Mutat Res. 1990;243:273-80 pubmed
    ..coli B. The enhancement was also observed in uvrA, umuC, recA, polA, or alkB mutants. This effect was lower in an alkA mutant, but was restored in an alkA umuC double mutant...
  67. Yi C, Jia G, Hou G, Dai Q, Zhang W, Zheng G, et al. Iron-catalysed oxidation intermediates captured in a DNA repair dioxygenase. Nature. 2010;468:330-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli AlkB is the first such enzyme that was discovered to repair methylated nucleic acids, which are otherwise cytotoxic and/..
  68. Shivarattan T, Chen H, Simpson P, Sedgwick B, Matthews S. Resonance assignments of Escherichia coli AlkB: a key 2-oxoglutarate and Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase of the adaptive DNA-repair response. J Biomol NMR. 2005;33:138 pubmed
  69. Feyzi E, Sundheim O, Westbye M, Aas P, Vågbø C, Otterlei M, et al. RNA base damage and repair. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2007;8:326-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, recent reports on repair of chemically methylated RNA by AlkB and a human homologue (hABH3) in vitro and in vivo strengthen the idea of RNA base repair as a cellular defence ..
  70. Wei Y, Chen B, Samson L. Suppression of Escherichia coli alkB mutants by Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5009-15 pubmed
    The alkB gene is one of a group of alkylation-inducible genes in Escherichia coli, and its product protects cells from SN2-type alkylating agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)...
  71. Maciejewska A, Poznanski J, Kaczmarska Z, Krowisz B, Nieminuszczy J, Polkowska Nowakowska A, et al. AlkB dioxygenase preferentially repairs protonated substrates: specificity against exocyclic adducts and molecular mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:432-41 pubmed publisher
    Efficient repair by Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase of exocyclic DNA adducts 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, 3,N(4)-?-hydroxyethanocytosine, and reported here for the first time 3,N(4)-?-hydroxypropanocytosine requires ..
  72. Volkert M. Adaptive response of Escherichia coli to alkylation damage. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1988;11:241-55 pubmed
    ..Four genes have been identified as components of this response, ada, alkA, alkB and aidB. The functions of two of these genes are known...
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    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein catalyzes the direct reversal of alkylation damage to DNA; primarily 1-methyladenine (1mA) and 3-methylcytosine (3mC) lesions created by endogenous or environmental alkylating agents...