Gene Symbol: aer
Description: fused signal transducer for aerotaxis sensory component/methyl accepting chemotaxis component
Alias: ECK3062, JW3043, air, yqjJ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Taylor B, Zhulin I, Johnson M. Aerotaxis and other energy-sensing behavior in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1999;53:103-28 pubmed
    ..The Aer and Tsr proteins in E. coli are newly recognized transducers for energy taxis. Aer is homologous to E...
  2. Bibikov S, Biran R, Rudd K, Parkinson J. A signal transducer for aerotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4075-9 pubmed
    ..Deletion mutants lacking a functional Aer protein failed to congregate around air bubbles or follow oxygen gradients in soft agar plates...
  3. Hollands K, Busby S, Lloyd G. New targets for the cyclic AMP receptor protein in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:89-94 pubmed
    ..It is reported that CRP functions as a Class I activator at the aer promoter and as a Class II activator at the gatY, sdaC, ychH and malX promoters.
  4. Rebbapragada A, Johnson M, Harding G, Zuccarelli A, Fletcher H, Zhulin I, et al. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10541-6 pubmed
    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses ..
  5. Ma Q, Johnson M, Taylor B. Genetic analysis of the HAMP domain of the Aer aerotaxis sensor localizes flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding determinants to the AS-2 helix. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:193-201 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli aerotaxis receptor, Aer, has a HAMP domain and a PAS domain with a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor that senses the intracellular ..
  6. Repik A, Rebbapragada A, Johnson M, Haznedar J, Zhulin I, Taylor B. PAS domain residues involved in signal transduction by the Aer redox sensor of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:806-16 pubmed
    ..We investigated the signalling mechanism in the PAS domain of Aer, the redox potential sensor and aerotaxis transducer in Escherichia coli...
  7. Bibikov S, Barnes L, Gitin Y, Parkinson J. Domain organization and flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding determinants in the aerotaxis signal transducer Aer of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5830-5 pubmed
    Aerotactic responses in Escherichia coli are mediated by the membrane transducer Aer, a recently identified member of the superfamily of PAS domain proteins, which includes sensors of light, oxygen, and redox state...
  8. Sheikh J, Dudley E, Sui B, Tamboura B, Suleman A, Nataro J. EilA, a HilA-like regulator in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:338-50 pubmed
    ..expression of eilA, either directly or indirectly: selC locus genes eipB, eipC, eipD, eicA and eaeX (renamed here air), as well as glyU ETT2 genes eivF and eivA...
  9. Zhulin I, Johnson M, Taylor B. How do bacteria avoid high oxygen concentrations?. Biosci Rep. 1997;17:335-42 pubmed
    ..A novel protein, Aer, and the chemotaxis serine receptor, Tsr, have recently been identified as transducers for aerotaxis which monitor ..

More Information


  1. Taylor B, Watts K, Johnson M. Oxygen and redox sensing by two-component systems that regulate behavioral responses: behavioral assays and structural studies of aer using in vivo disulfide cross-linking. Methods Enzymol. 2007;422:190-232 pubmed
    ..At the molecular level, we describe procedures used to determine the structure and topology of Aer, a membrane receptor for aerotaxis...
  2. Elliott K, Zhulin I, Stuckey J, DiRita V. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain...
  3. Edwards J, Johnson M, Taylor B. Differentiation between electron transport sensing and proton motive force sensing by the Aer and Tsr receptors for aerotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:823-37 pubmed
    ..between PMF, electron transport or redox, all primary candidates for the signal sensed by the aerotaxis receptors, Aer and Tsr. We constructed electron transport mutants that produced different respiratory H+/e- stoichiometries...
  4. Wright S, Walia B, Parkinson J, Khan S. Differential activation of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors by blue-light stimuli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3962-71 pubmed
    ..The study of deletion mutants revealed a specific requirement for either the aerotaxis receptor Aer or the chemoreceptor Tar but not the Tar homolog Tsr...
  5. Campbell A, Watts K, Johnson M, Taylor B. Gain-of-function mutations cluster in distinct regions associated with the signalling pathway in the PAS domain of the aerotaxis receptor, Aer. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:575-86 pubmed publisher
    The Aer receptor monitors internal energy (redox) levels in Escherichia coli with an FAD-containing PAS domain...
  6. Gosink K, Burón Barral M, Parkinson J. Signaling interactions between the aerotaxis transducer Aer and heterologous chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3487-93 pubmed
    b>Aer, a low-abundance signal transducer in Escherichia coli, mediates robust aerotactic behavior, possibly through interactions with methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP)...
  7. Amin D, Taylor B, Johnson M. Topology and boundaries of the aerotaxis receptor Aer in the membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:894-901 pubmed
    ..The aerotaxis receptor, Aer, is different in that both its sensing and signaling regions are proposed to be cytosolic...
  8. Samanta D, Widom J, Borbat P, Freed J, Crane B. Bacterial Energy Sensor Aer Modulates the Activity of the Chemotaxis Kinase CheA Based on the Redox State of the Flavin Cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:25809-25814 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, the transmembrane receptor Aer is the primary energy sensor for motility...
  9. Greer Phillips S, Alexandre G, Taylor B, Zhulin I. Aer and Tsr guide Escherichia coli in spatial gradients of oxidizable substrates. Microbiology. 2003;149:2661-7 pubmed
    The Aer and Tsr chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli govern tactic responses to oxygen and redox potential that are parts of an overall behaviour known as energy taxis...
  10. Zhulin I, Rowsell E, Johnson M, Taylor B. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3196-201 pubmed
    ..We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level. ..
  11. Grishanin R, Bibikov S. Mechanisms of oxygen taxis in bacteria. Biosci Rep. 1997;17:77-83 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of oxygen sensing in various bacterial species are considered in connection with the existing, often fragmental, data on phototaxis, redox taxis and taxis repellent effect of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). ..
  12. Stock A. Energy sensors for aerotaxis in Escherichia coli: something old, something new. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10487-9 pubmed
  13. Taylor B, Zhulin I. PAS domains: internal sensors of oxygen, redox potential, and light. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:479-506 pubmed
    ..Although PAS domains were only recently identified, the signaling functions with which they are associated have long been recognized as fundamental properties of living cells. ..
  14. Taylor B, Zhulin I. In search of higher energy: metabolism-dependent behaviour in bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:683-90 pubmed
    ..This sensor, Aer, guides the bacteria to environments that support maximal energy levels in the cells...
  15. Taylor B. An alternative strategy for adaptation in bacterial behavior. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3671-3 pubmed
  16. Bespalov V, Zhulin I, Taylor B. Behavioral responses of Escherichia coli to changes in redox potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10084-9 pubmed
    ..A similar mechanism has been proposed for aerotaxis. Redox taxis may play an important role in the distribution of bacterial species in natural environments. ..
  17. Hollands K, Lee D, Lloyd G, Busby S. Activation of sigma 28-dependent transcription in Escherichia coli by the cyclic AMP receptor protein requires an unusual promoter organization. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1098-111 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli aer regulatory region contains a single promoter that is recognized by RNA polymerase containing the flagellar sigma factor, sigma(28)...
  18. Horne S, Mattson K, Prüss B. An Escherichia coli aer mutant exhibits a reduced ability to colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2009;95:149-58 pubmed publisher
    The oxygen sensor Aer of Escherichia coli affects the expression level of genes that are involved in sugar acid degradation...
  19. Amin D, Taylor B, Johnson M. Organization of the aerotaxis receptor aer in the membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7206-12 pubmed
    The Aer receptor guides Escherichia coli to specific oxygen and energy-generating niches...
  20. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  21. Zhulin I, Taylor B, Dixon R. PAS domain S-boxes in Archaea, Bacteria and sensors for oxygen and redox. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:331-3 pubmed
  22. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..We predict two limits of precise adaptation at large attractant concentrations: Either receptors reach full methylation and turn off, or receptors become saturated and cease to respond to attractant but retain their adapted activity. ..
  23. Watts K, Johnson M, Taylor B. Minimal requirements for oxygen sensing by the aerotaxis receptor Aer. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1317-26 pubmed
    The PAS and HAMP domain superfamilies are signal transduction modules found in all kingdoms of life. The Aer receptor, which contains both domains, initiates rapid behavioural responses to oxygen (aerotaxis) and other electron acceptors, ..
  24. Herrmann S, Ma Q, Johnson M, Repik A, Taylor B. PAS domain of the Aer redox sensor requires C-terminal residues for native-fold formation and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6782-91 pubmed
    The Aer protein in Escherichia coli is a membrane-bound, FAD-containing aerotaxis and energy sensor that putatively monitors the redox state of the electron transport system...
  25. Bibikov S, Miller A, Gosink K, Parkinson J. Methylation-independent aerotaxis mediated by the Escherichia coli Aer protein. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3730-7 pubmed
    b>Aer is a membrane-associated protein that mediates aerotactic responses in Escherichia coli...
  26. Taylor B, Rebbapragada A, Johnson M. The FAD-PAS domain as a sensor for behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001;3:867-79 pubmed
    b>Aer, the aerotaxis receptor in Escherichia coli, is a member of a novel class of flavoproteins that act as redox sensors...
  27. Burón Barral M, Gosink K, Parkinson J. Loss- and gain-of-function mutations in the F1-HAMP region of the Escherichia coli aerotaxis transducer Aer. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3477-86 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli Aer protein contains an N-terminal PAS domain that binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), senses aerotactic stimuli, and communicates with the output signaling domain...
  28. Prüss B, Campbell J, Van Dyk T, Zhu C, Kogan Y, Matsumura P. FlhD/FlhC is a regulator of anaerobic respiration and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway through induction of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein Aer. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:534-43 pubmed
    ..two transcriptional activators of flagellar expression (FlhD and FlhC) and the chemotaxis methyl-accepting protein Aer was studied with glass slide DNA microarrays...
  29. Taylor B. Aer on the inside looking out: paradigm for a PAS-HAMP role in sensing oxygen, redox and energy. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:1415-24 pubmed
    b>Aer, the Escherichia coli aerotaxis (oxygen-sensing) receptor, is representative of a small class of receptors that face the cytoplasm in bacteria...
  30. Ma Q, Roy F, Herrmann S, Taylor B, Johnson M. The Aer protein of Escherichia coli forms a homodimer independent of the signaling domain and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7456-9 pubmed
    In vivo cross-linking between native cysteines in the Aer receptor of Escherichia coli showed dimer formation at the membrane anchor and in the putative HAMP domain...
  31. Watts K, Ma Q, Johnson M, Taylor B. Interactions between the PAS and HAMP domains of the Escherichia coli aerotaxis receptor Aer. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7440-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli energy-sensing Aer protein initiates aerotaxis towards environments supporting optimal cellular energy. The Aer sensor is an N-terminal, FAD-binding, PAS domain...
  32. Campbell A, Watts K, Johnson M, Taylor B. Role of the F1 region in the Escherichia coli aerotaxis receptor Aer. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:358-66 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, the aerotaxis receptor Aer is an atypical receptor because it senses intracellular redox potential. The Aer sensor is a cytoplasmic, N-terminal PAS domain that is tethered to the membrane by a 47-residue F1 linker...
  33. Watts K, Johnson M, Taylor B. Different conformations of the kinase-on and kinase-off signaling states in the Aer HAMP domain. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4095-103 pubmed publisher disulfide cross-linking to explore the structure of the HAMP domain in the Escherichia coli aerotaxis receptor Aer. Using an Aer HAMP model based on the structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidus Af1503-HAMP, the closest residue pairs at ..
  34. Watts K, Sommer K, Fry S, Johnson M, Taylor B. Function of the N-terminal cap of the PAS domain in signaling by the aerotaxis receptor Aer. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2154-62 pubmed
    b>Aer, the Escherichia coli receptor for behavioral responses to oxygen (aerotaxis), energy, and redox potential, contains a PAS sensory-input domain...
  35. Yu H, Saw J, Hou S, Larsen R, Watts K, Johnson M, et al. Aerotactic responses in bacteria to photoreleased oxygen. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;217:237-42 pubmed
    ..This computer-assisted caged oxygen assay gives a unique physiological profile of different aerotaxis transducers in bacteria. ..
  36. Watts K, Johnson M, Taylor B. Structure-function relationships in the HAMP and proximal signaling domains of the aerotaxis receptor Aer. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2118-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Aer, the Escherichia coli aerotaxis receptor, faces the cytoplasm, where the PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim)-flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain senses redox changes in the electron transport system or cytoplasm...
  37. Niwano M, Taylor B. Novel sensory adaptation mechanism in bacterial chemotaxis to oxygen and phosphotransferase substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:11-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there are methylation-independent and methylation-dependent mechanisms for sensory adaptation in bacteria. ..