Gene Symbol: acs
Description: acetyl-CoA synthetase
Alias: ECK4062, JW4030, acsA, yfaC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Kumari S, Tishel R, Eisenbach M, Wolfe A. Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2878-86 pubmed
    Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (Acs) activates acetate to acetyl coenzyme A through an acetyladenylate intermediate; two other enzymes, acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta), activate acetate through an acetyl phosphate ..
  2. Browning D, Beatty C, Sanstad E, Gunn K, Busby S, Wolfe A. Modulation of CRP-dependent transcription at the Escherichia coli acsP2 promoter by nucleoprotein complexes: anti-activation by the nucleoid proteins FIS and IHF. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:241-54 pubmed
    b>acs encodes acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, a high-affinity enzyme that allows cells to scavenge for acetate during carbon starvation...
  3. Kumari S, Beatty C, Browning D, Busby S, Simel E, Hovel Miner G, et al. Regulation of acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4173-9 pubmed
    ..instead resorb acetate, activate it to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by means of the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and utilize it to generate energy and biosynthetic components via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate ..
  4. Gimenez R, Nuñez M, Badia J, Aguilar J, Baldoma L. The gene yjcG, cotranscribed with the gene acs, encodes an acetate permease in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6448-55 pubmed
    ..Northern experiments revealed that yjcG is cotranscribed with its neighbor, acs, encoding acetyl coenzyme A synthetase, which is involved in the scavenging acetate...
  5. Beatty C, Browning D, Busby S, Wolfe A. Cyclic AMP receptor protein-dependent activation of the Escherichia coli acsP2 promoter by a synergistic class III mechanism. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5148-57 pubmed
    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) activates transcription of the Escherichia coli acs gene, which encodes an acetate-scavenging enzyme required for fitness during periods of carbon starvation...
  6. Brown T, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. The enzymic interconversion of acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1977;102:327-36 pubmed
    ..An inducible acetyl-CoA synthetase [acetate: CoA ligase (AMP-forming); EC] effects this uptake of acetate. ..
  7. Kumari S, Simel E, Wolfe A. sigma(70) is the principal sigma factor responsible for transcription of acs, which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:551-4 pubmed
    ..instead resorb acetate, activate it to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by means of the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and utilize it to generate energy and biosynthetic components via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate ..
  8. Barak R, Welch M, Yanovsky A, Oosawa K, Eisenbach M. Acetyladenylate or its derivative acetylates the chemotaxis protein CheY in vitro and increases its activity at the flagellar switch. Biochemistry. 1992;31:10099-107 pubmed
    ..This was achieved by including in the envelopes the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and ATP, and adding acetate externally...
  9. Kinnersley M, Holben W, Rosenzweig F. E Unibus Plurum: genomic analysis of an experimentally evolved polymorphism in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000713 pubmed publisher
    ..may in part be explained by mutations in trans-acting regulators malT and glpK, and in cis-acting sequences of acs. In the founder, a cis-regulatory mutation in acs (acetyl CoA synthetase) and a structural mutation in glpR (..

More Information


  1. Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M. The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:251-65 pubmed Escherichia coli, can be activated to generate clockwise flagellar rotation is by acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs)-mediated acetylation...
  2. Phue J, Noronha S, Hattacharyya R, Wolfe A, Shiloach J. Glucose metabolism at high density growth of E. coli B and E. coli K: differences in metabolic pathways are responsible for efficient glucose utilization in E. coli B as determined by microarrays and Northern blot analyses. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:805-20 pubmed
    ..The behavior of the ppsA, acs, and aceBAK in JM109 was dependent on the glucose supply strategy...
  3. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Acetylation of the response regulator, CheY, is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:731-43 pubmed
    ..coli, CheY, can undergo acetylation at lysine residues 92 and 109 via a reaction mediated by acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs). The outcome is activation of CheY, which results in increased clockwise rotation...
  4. Shin S, Song S, Lee D, Pan J, Park C. Involvement of iclR and rpoS in the induction of acs, the gene for acetyl coenzyme A synthetase of Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;146:103-8 pubmed
    ..CoA: reversal of acetate production by phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, and the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) pathway that scavenges acetate. We investigated acs gene expression by using a cat transcriptional fusion...
  5. Brock M, Maerker C, Schütz A, Volker U, Buckel W. Oxidation of propionate to pyruvate in Escherichia coli. Involvement of methylcitrate dehydratase and aconitase. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:6184-94 pubmed
    ..This is in good agreement with investigations on Salmonella enterica LT2, in which disruption of the prpE gene showed no visible phenotype. ..
  6. Starai V, Celic I, Cole R, Boeke J, Escalante Semerena J. Sir2-dependent activation of acetyl-CoA synthetase by deacetylation of active lysine. Science. 2002;298:2390-2 pubmed
    Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (Acs) is an enzyme central to metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes...
  7. Browning D, Beatty C, Wolfe A, Cole J, Busby S. Independent regulation of the divergent Escherichia coli nrfA and acsP1 promoters by a nucleoprotein assembly at a shared regulatory region. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:687-701 pubmed
    ..second promoter (pacsP1), which directs transcription into the adjacent gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (acs), is overlapping and divergent to pnrfA...
  8. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Co-regulation of acetylation and phosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:375-81 pubmed
    ..phosphate, each strongly inhibited both the autoacetylation of the acetylating enzyme, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs), and the acetylation of CheY...
  9. Browning D, Lee D, Wolfe A, Cole J, Busby S. The Escherichia coli K-12 NarL and NarP proteins insulate the nrf promoter from the effects of integration host factor. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7449-56 pubmed
    ..5. The E. coli acs gene is transcribed from a divergent promoter upstream from the nrf operon promoter...
  10. Wu G, Williams H, Zamanian M, Gibson F, Poole R. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants affected in aerobic respiration: the cloning and nucleotide sequence of ubiG. Identification of an S-adenosylmethionine-binding motif in protein, RNA, and small-molecule methyltransferases. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:2101-12 pubmed
    ..The cloned 2.8 kb fragment also contains a sequence encoding the C-terminus of a protein with 42-44% identity to fungal acetyl-CoA synthetases. ..
  11. Ramakrishnan R, Schuster M, Bourret R. Acetylation at Lys-92 enhances signaling by the chemotaxis response regulator protein CheY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4918-23 pubmed
    ..Thus acetylation probably affects signal generation by CheY at a step after switch binding. ..
  12. Starai V, Escalante Semerena J. Identification of the protein acetyltransferase (Pat) enzyme that acetylates acetyl-CoA synthetase in Salmonella enterica. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..sirtuin of this bacterium, regulates the activity of the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs). The Pat enzyme uses acetyl-CoA as substrate to modify residue Lys609 of Acs. The Pat/CobB system of S...
  13. Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe A, Eisenbach M. Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:383-401 pubmed
    Acetylation of CheY, the excitatory response regulator of bacterial chemotaxis, by the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) is involved in Escherichia coli chemotaxis, but its function is obscure. Here, we overproduced Acs from E...
  14. Barak R, Abouhamad W, Eisenbach M. Both acetate kinase and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase are involved in acetate-stimulated change in the direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:985-8 pubmed
    ..With acetate metabolism mutants, we demonstrate that both acetate kinase and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase are involved in this response. Thus, a response was observed when one of these enzymes was missing but not when both were absent. ..
  15. Castaño Cerezo S, Pastor J, Renilla S, Bernal V, Iborra J, Cánovas M. An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2009;8:54 pubmed publisher
    ..This work analyzes the effect of mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media...