Gene Symbol: acrS
Description: acrAB operon transcriptional repressor
Alias: ECK3251, JW3232, envR, yhdK
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. ..
  2. Klein J, Henrich B, Plapp R. Molecular analysis and nucleotide sequence of the envCD operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:230-40 pubmed
    ..Overproduction of EnvC protein appears to be lethal to Escherichia coli. The envD gene, however, could be cloned and expressed at high levels under control of the tac promoter without deleterious effects on the host. ..
  3. Yang K, Han L, Vining L. Regulation of jadomycin B production in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: involvement of a repressor gene, jadR2. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6111-7 pubmed
    ..The strongest similarity was to EnvR of Escherichia coli, but the sequence also resembled MtrR, AcrR, TetC, and TcmR, all of which are involved in ..
  4. Pan W, Spratt B. Regulation of the permeability of the gonococcal cell envelope by the mtr system. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:769-75 pubmed
  5. Lewis K. Multidrug resistance pumps in bacteria: variations on a theme. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:119-23 pubmed
    ..This similarity in design, and the high incidence of apparently independent evolution of MDRs, suggests that the property of multidrug resistance might have resulted from a loss of specificity in a specific hydrophobic-drug efflux pump. ..
  6. Ma D, Cook D, Alberti M, Pon N, Nikaido H, Hearst J. Molecular cloning and characterization of acrA and acrE genes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6299-313 pubmed
    ..coli polypeptides, EnvC and EnvD, respectively. Drug susceptibilities in one acrA mutant (N43) and one envCD mutant (PM61) have been determined and compared. Finally, the possible functions of these proteins are discussed. ..
  7. Kobayashi K, Tsukagoshi N, Aono R. Suppression of hypersensitivity of Escherichia coli acrB mutant to organic solvents by integrational activation of the acrEF operon with the IS1 or IS2 element. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2646-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is concluded that in these cells a combination of the proteins AcrA, AcrF, and TolC or the proteins AcrE, AcrF, and TolC is functional in solvent efflux instead of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. ..
  8. Olliver A, Vall M, Chaslus Dancla E, Cloeckaert A. Overexpression of the multidrug efflux operon acrEF by insertional activation with IS1 or IS10 elements in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT204 acrB mutants selected with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In one of the strains, transposition of IS1 caused partial deletion of acrS, the putative local repressor gene of the acrEF operon...
  9. Ramos J, Martínez Bueno M, Molina Henares A, Teran W, Watanabe K, Zhang X, et al. The TetR family of transcriptional repressors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:326-56 pubmed
    ..Information related to the TetR family of regulators has been updated in a database that can be accessed at ..

More Information


  1. Hirakawa H, Takumi Kobayashi A, Theisen U, Hirata T, Nishino K, Yamaguchi A. AcrS/EnvR represses expression of the acrAB multidrug efflux genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6276-9 pubmed publisher
    The acrS regulatory gene is located upstream of the acrEF multidrug efflux system genes. However, the roles of AcrS in regulation of drug efflux pumps have not been clearly understood...