Gene Symbol: acrR
Description: transcriptional repressor
Alias: ECK0458, JW0453, ybaH
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Augustus A, Celaya T, Husain F, Humbard M, Misra R. Antibiotic-sensitive TolC mutants and their suppressors. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1851-60 pubmed
    ..Two extragenic suppressors of TolC(R367H), mapping in the regulatory region of acrAB, uncoupled the AcrR-mediated repression of the acrAB genes...
  2. Routh M, Su C, Zhang Q, Yu E. Structures of AcrR and CmeR: insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional repression and multi-drug recognition in the TetR family of regulators. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:844-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The multi-drug binding proteins AcrR of Escherichia coli and CmeR from Campylobacter jejuni are members of the TetR family of transcriptional repressors ..
  3. Ma D, Alberti M, Lynch C, Nikaido H, Hearst J. The local repressor AcrR plays a modulating role in the regulation of acrAB genes of Escherichia coli by global stress signals. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:101-12 pubmed
    ..We found that a closely linked gene, acrR, encoded a repressor of acrAB...
  4. Jellen Ritter A, Kern W. Enhanced expression of the multidrug efflux pumps AcrAB and AcrEF associated with insertion element transposition in Escherichia coli mutants Selected with a fluoroquinolone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:1467-72 pubmed
    ..expression of acrB in a reverse transcriptase PCR associated with insertion of IS186 into the AcrAB repressor gene acrR. In vitro selection experiments with acrAB knockout strains yielded MDR mutants after a single step...
  5. Gerken H, Misra R. Genetic evidence for functional interactions between TolC and AcrA proteins of a major antibiotic efflux pump of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:620-31 pubmed
    ..10 different missense mutations within the acrA gene, whereas a single isolate had a missense mutation within the acrR gene, which codes for the acrAB repressor...
  6. Fralick J. Evidence that TolC is required for functioning of the Mar/AcrAB efflux pump of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5803-5 pubmed
    A study examining the influence of TolC on AcrA, AcrR, and MarR1 mutants indicates that functional TolC is required for the operation of the AcrAB efflux system and for the expression of the Mar phenotype...
  7. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. ..
  8. Ma D, Cook D, Alberti M, Pon N, Nikaido H, Hearst J. Molecular cloning and characterization of acrA and acrE genes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6299-313 pubmed
    ..coli polypeptides, EnvC and EnvD, respectively. Drug susceptibilities in one acrA mutant (N43) and one envCD mutant (PM61) have been determined and compared. Finally, the possible functions of these proteins are discussed. ..
  9. Li M, Gu R, Su C, Routh M, Harris K, Jewell E, et al. Crystal structure of the transcriptional regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:591-603 pubmed
    ..The expression of AcrAB is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AcrR, whose open reading frame is located 141 bp upstream of the acrAB operon...

More Information


  1. Webber M, Talukder A, Piddock L. Contribution of mutation at amino acid 45 of AcrR to acrB expression and ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical and veterinary Escherichia coli isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4390-2 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli isolates which overexpressed acrB and had a substitution at amino acid 45 of AcrR were complemented with wild-type acrR...
  2. Corvec S, Lepelletier D, Reynaud A, Dauvergne S, Giraudeau C, Caroff N. In vivo selection of an Escherichia coli isolate highly resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime: role of a 4-bp duplication in acrR and ampC overexpression. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:196-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Su C, Rutherford D, Yu E. Characterization of the multidrug efflux regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:85-90 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli AcrR represses transcription of the acrB gene, which encodes the multidrug efflux pump AcrB that extrudes a wide variety of toxic compounds, by binding its target operator DNA...
  4. Li M, Qiu X, Su C, Long F, Gu R, McDermott G, et al. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:1150-2 pubmed
    This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray data analysis of the AcrR regulatory protein. The Escherichia coli AcrR is a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators...
  5. Ramos J, Martínez Bueno M, Molina Henares A, Teran W, Watanabe K, Zhang X, et al. The TetR family of transcriptional repressors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:326-56 pubmed
    ..Information related to the TetR family of regulators has been updated in a database that can be accessed at ..
  6. Gu R, Li M, Su C, Long F, Routh M, Yang F, et al. Conformational change of the AcrR regulator reveals a possible mechanism of induction. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:584-8 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli AcrR multidrug-binding protein represses transcription of acrAB and is induced by many structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds. The crystal structure of AcrR in space group P222(1) has been reported previously...
  7. Lee J, Cho K, Kim O. Overproduction of AcrR increases organic solvent tolerance mediated by modulation of SoxS regulon in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;98:8763-73 pubmed publisher
    Acriflavine resistance regulator (AcrR), a local transcription factor, regulates the expression of the acrRAB genes associated with the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump...
  8. Kim Y, Im S, Lee J, Kim O. Potential Swimming Motility Variation by AcrR in Escherichia coli. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;26:1824-1828 pubmed publisher
    b>AcrR, the toxic-compounds-response regulator, regulates motility in microorganisms, presumably to escape from toxic environments...