Gene Symbol: acrF
Description: multidrug efflux system protein
Alias: ECK3253, JW3234, envD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Klein J, Plapp R. Locations of the envCD genes on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3828-9 pubmed
  2. Ma D, Cook D, Alberti M, Pon N, Nikaido H, Hearst J. Molecular cloning and characterization of acrA and acrE genes of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6299-313 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, AcrA and AcrE share 65 and 77% amino acid identity with two other E. coli polypeptides, EnvC and EnvD, respectively...
  3. Kawamura Sato K, Shibayama K, Horii T, Iimuma Y, Arakawa Y, Ohta M. Role of multiple efflux pumps in Escherichia coli in indole expulsion. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;179:345-52 pubmed
    ..This mutant was more susceptible to the growth-inhibitory effect of indole than the parent. These results indicate that the AcrEF system plays a significant role in indole efflux. ..
  4. Klein J, Henrich B, Plapp R. Molecular analysis and nucleotide sequence of the envCD operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;230:230-40 pubmed
    ..the nucleotide sequence revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) coding for the proteins EnvC (41,281 daltons) and EnvD (104,415 daltons)...
  5. Nikaido H. Multidrug efflux pumps of gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5853-9 pubmed
  6. Kobayashi K, Tsukagoshi N, Aono R. Suppression of hypersensitivity of Escherichia coli acrB mutant to organic solvents by integrational activation of the acrEF operon with the IS1 or IS2 element. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2646-53 pubmed
    ..These mutants produced high levels of AcrE and AcrF proteins, which were not produced in OST5500, and in each mutant an insertion sequence (IS1 or IS2) was found ..
  7. Jellen Ritter A, Kern W. Enhanced expression of the multidrug efflux pumps AcrAB and AcrEF associated with insertion element transposition in Escherichia coli mutants Selected with a fluoroquinolone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:1467-72 pubmed
    ..These observations confirm the importance of efflux-associated nontarget gene mutations and indicate that transposition of genetic elements may have a role in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli. ..
  8. Domka J, Lee J, Wood T. YliH (BssR) and YceP (BssS) regulate Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm formation by influencing cell signaling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2449-59 pubmed
    ..We propose new names for these two loci: bssR for yliH and bssS for yceP, based on the phrase "regulator of biofilm through signal secretion." ..
  9. Yamada S, Awano N, Inubushi K, Maeda E, Nakamori S, Nishino K, et al. Effect of drug transporter genes on cysteine export and overproduction in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4735-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the multidrug transporter Bcr in the major facilitator family is involved in L-cysteine export and overproduction in genetically engineered E. coli cells. ..

More Information


  1. Lewis K. Multidrug resistance pumps in bacteria: variations on a theme. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:119-23 pubmed
    ..This similarity in design, and the high incidence of apparently independent evolution of MDRs, suggests that the property of multidrug resistance might have resulted from a loss of specificity in a specific hydrophobic-drug efflux pump. ..
  2. Nishino K, Yamaguchi A. Role of histone-like protein H-NS in multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1423-9 pubmed
    ..Double deletion of the mdtEF and acrEF genes completely suppressed Deltahns-mediated multidrug resistance, indicating that Deltahns-mediated multidrug resistance is due to derepression of the acrEF and mdtEF drug exporter genes. ..
  3. Hirata T, Saito A, Nishino K, Tamura N, Yamaguchi A. Effects of efflux transporter genes on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to tigecycline (GAR-936). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2179-84 pubmed
    ..coli cells overproducing AcrAB. Therefore, tigecycline is a possible substrate of AcrAB and its close homolog, AcrEF, which are resistance-modulation-division-type multicomponent efflux transporters. ..
  4. Bohnert J, Kern W. Selected arylpiperazines are capable of reversing multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli overexpressing RND efflux pumps. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:849-52 pubmed
  5. Viveiros M, Jesus A, Brito M, Leandro C, Martins M, Ordway D, et al. Inducement and reversal of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli K-12 and expression of proton gradient-dependent multidrug efflux pump genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3578-82 pubmed
    ..All transporter genes were overexpressed after induced resistance with acrF being 80-fold more expressed in the DeltaacrAB tetracycline-induced strain.
  6. Bleuel C, Grosse C, Taudte N, Scherer J, Wesenberg D, Krauss G, et al. TolC is involved in enterobactin efflux across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6701-7 pubmed
    ..protein TolC but none of the respective seven resistance nodulation cell division (RND) proteins CusA, AcrB, AcrD, AcrF, MdtF (YhiV), or the twin RND MdtBC (YegNO) was essential for enterobactin export across the outer membrane...
  7. Lau S, Zgurskaya H. Cell division defects in Escherichia coli deficient in the multidrug efflux transporter AcrEF-TolC. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the E. coli AcrEF transporter is expressed under standard laboratory conditions and plays an important role in the normal maintenance of cell division. ..