Gene Symbol: acrD
Description: aminoglycoside/multidrug efflux system
Alias: ECK2465, JW2454, yffA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Nikaido H. Multidrug efflux pumps of gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5853-9 pubmed
  2. Ma D, Cook D, Hearst J, Nikaido H. Efflux pumps and drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Trends Microbiol. 1994;2:489-93 pubmed
    ..Pumps such as the Escherichia coli Acr system and its homologs make Gram-negative bacteria resistant to dyes, detergents and antibiotics. ..
  3. Fralick J. Evidence that TolC is required for functioning of the Mar/AcrAB efflux pump of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5803-5 pubmed
    ..These results are compatible with the hypothesis that TolC is a component of the AcrAB efflux complex. ..
  4. Hirakawa H, Inazumi Y, Masaki T, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. Indole induces the expression of multidrug exporter genes in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1113-26 pubmed
    ..of these xenobiotic exporter genes, and found that indole induces a variety of xenobiotic exporter genes including acrD, acrE, cusB, emrK, mdtA, mdtE and yceL. Indole treatment of E...
  5. Bleuel C, Grosse C, Taudte N, Scherer J, Wesenberg D, Krauss G, et al. TolC is involved in enterobactin efflux across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6701-7 pubmed
    ..tunnel protein TolC but none of the respective seven resistance nodulation cell division (RND) proteins CusA, AcrB, AcrD, AcrF, MdtF (YhiV), or the twin RND MdtBC (YegNO) was essential for enterobactin export across the outer membrane...
  6. Hirakawa H, Nishino K, Yamada J, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. Beta-lactam resistance modulated by the overexpression of response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:576-82 pubmed
    ..The baeR- and evgA-mediated resistance is due to up-regulation of the expression of multidrug exporter genes, acrD and mdtABC for baeR, and yhiUV for evgA, because baeR- and evgA-mediated resistance was completely absent in ..
  7. Rieg S, Huth A, Kalbacher H, Kern W. Resistance against antimicrobial peptides is independent of Escherichia coli AcrAB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB and Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pumps. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33:174-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings do not support a critical role of MDR efflux pumps in the tested pathogens as a strategy to increase virulence by circumventing the antimicrobial action of innate defence AMPs. ..
  8. Viveiros M, Jesus A, Brito M, Leandro C, Martins M, Ordway D, et al. Inducement and reversal of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli K-12 and expression of proton gradient-dependent multidrug efflux pump genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3578-82 pubmed
    ..All transporter genes were overexpressed after induced resistance with acrF being 80-fold more expressed in the DeltaacrAB tetracycline-induced strain. ..
  9. Rosenberg E, Ma D, Nikaido H. AcrD of Escherichia coli is an aminoglycoside efflux pump. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1754-6 pubmed
    b>AcrD, a transporter belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division family, was shown to participate in the efflux of aminoglycosides...

More Information


  1. Saier M, Tam R, Reizer A, Reizer J. Two novel families of bacterial membrane proteins concerned with nodulation, cell division and transport. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:841-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that an MFP functions co-operatively with an RND protein to transport large or hydrophobic molecules across the two membranes of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope. ..
  2. Elkins C, Nikaido H. Substrate specificity of the RND-type multidrug efflux pumps AcrB and AcrD of Escherichia coli is determined predominantly by two large periplasmic loops. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6490-8 pubmed
    ..b>AcrD is an efflux transporter of E...
  3. Elkins C, Mullis L. Mammalian steroid hormones are substrates for the major RND- and MFS-type tripartite multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1191-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, at least two other RND-type pumps, YhiV and AcrD, were capable of transporting such hormones when overexpressed on plasmid vectors (with some demonstrable ..
  4. Yamada S, Awano N, Inubushi K, Maeda E, Nakamori S, Nishino K, et al. Effect of drug transporter genes on cysteine export and overproduction in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4735-42 pubmed
    ..coli on L-cysteine export and overproduction. Overexpression of the acrD, acrEF, bcr, cusA, emrAB, emrKY, ybjYZ, and yojIH genes reversed the growth inhibition of tnaA (the major CD gene)-..
  5. Will J, Sheldrick W, Wolters D. Characterisation of cisplatin coordination sites in cellular Escherichia coli DNA-binding proteins by combined biphasic liquid chromatography and ESI tandem mass spectrometry. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2008;13:421-34 pubmed
    ..Two efflux proteins (acrD, mdtA), the redox regulator thioredoxin 1 (thiO) and the external filament-like type-1 fimbrial protein A chain (..
  6. Yamamoto K, Tamai R, Yamazaki M, Inaba T, Sowa Y, Kawagishi I. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21909 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli...
  7. Horiyama T, Nishino K. AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC multidrug efflux systems are involved in enterobactin export in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108642 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Single deletions of acrB, acrD, mdtABC, acrEF, or mdtEF did not affect the ability of E...
  8. Nakamura H. Novel acriflavin resistance genes, acrC and acrD, in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1979;139:8-12 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis characterized two new genetic loci, acrC and acrD. The former was mapped between tonA and proA, and the latter between the origin of genetic transfer of HfrH and ..
  9. Aires J, Nikaido H. Aminoglycosides are captured from both periplasm and cytoplasm by the AcrD multidrug efflux transporter of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1923-9 pubmed
    ..mechanisms of resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pumps, we examined the Escherichia coli AcrD pump, whose typical substrates, aminoglycosides, are not expected to diffuse spontaneously across the lipid bilayer...
  10. Bouvier J, Richaud C, Higgins W, Bogler O, Stragier P. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the dapE gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5265-71 pubmed
    ..Neither of these two promoters is regulated by the lysine concentration in the growth medium. ..