Gene Symbol: acnA
Description: aconitate hydratase 1; aconitase A
Alias: ECK1271, JW1268, acn
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gardner P, Fridovich I. Effect of glutathione on aconitase in Escherichia coli. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;301:98-102 pubmed
    ..coli. GSH may facilitate reactivation of aconitase, and of other [4Fe-4S]-containing dehydratases, by increasing the rate of transfer of Fe(II) to the [3Fe-4S] site. ..
  2. Prodromou C, Haynes M, Guest J. The aconitase of Escherichia coli: purification of the enzyme and molecular cloning and map location of the gene (acn). J Gen Microbiol. 1991;137:2505-15 pubmed
    ..coli acn gene using a 456 bp citB probe. Phages containing the acn gene were isolated from a lambda-E...
  3. Varghese S, Tang Y, Imlay J. Contrasting sensitivities of Escherichia coli aconitases A and B to oxidation and iron depletion. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:221-30 pubmed
    ..More recently it was determined that E. coli synthesizes at least two isozymes of aconitase, AcnA and AcnB...
  4. Gruer M, Guest J. Two genetically-distinct and differentially-regulated aconitases (AcnA and AcnB) in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 10):2531-41 pubmed
    An acnA mutant of Escherichia coli was constructed by replacing the chromosomal acnA gene by an internally deleted derivative containing a kanR cassette...
  5. Lu C, Bentley W, Rao G. A high-throughput approach to promoter study using green fluorescent protein. Biotechnol Prog. 2004;20:1634-40 pubmed
    ..the study described here, an overexpression promoter (pBAD promoter) and two comparatively weak promoters (sodA and acnA in Escherichia coli SoxRS regulon) were studied in both endpoint and kinetics formats...
  6. Gardner P, Fridovich I. Inactivation-reactivation of aconitase in Escherichia coli. A sensitive measure of superoxide radical. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:8757-63 pubmed
    ..coli. On this basis, [O2-] was estimated to be approximately 20-40 pM in aerobic log phase E. coli containing wild type levels of superoxide dismutase and approximately 300 pM in a mutant strain lacking superoxide dismutase. ..
  7. Swim H, Krampitz L. Acetic acid oxidation by Escherichia coli; evidence for the occurrence of a tricarboxylic acid cycle. J Bacteriol. 1954;67:419-25 pubmed
  8. Lu C, Bentley W, Rao G. Comparisons of oxidative stress response genes in aerobic Escherichia coli fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:864-70 pubmed
    The promoter regions of five SoxRS regulon genes (sodA, fumC, zwf, acnA, and acrAB) and one SoxRS regulatory protein gene (soxS) were inserted upstream of the gene of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pGlow-TOPO...
  9. Hayashi K, Morooka N, Yamamoto Y, Fujita K, Isono K, Choi S, et al. Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110. Mol Syst Biol. 2006;2:2006.0007 pubmed
    ..Errors in the original MG1655 sequence (<1 per 13,000 bases) were mostly within portions sequenced with out-dated technology based on radioactive chemistry. ..

More Information


  1. Mass E, Gottesman S. A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These include two other genes encoding enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, acnA and fumA, two ferritin genes, ftnA and bfr, and a gene for superoxide dismutase, sodB...
  2. Weber A, Kögl S, Jung K. Time-dependent proteome alterations under osmotic stress during aerobic and anaerobic growth in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7165-75 pubmed
    ..Eleven additional proteins (OtsB, YceI, YciE, YciF, YgaU, YjbJ, AcnA, MetL, PoxB, Ssb, and YhbO) were induced by osmotic stress imposed by NaCl...
  3. Gardner P. Superoxide-driven aconitase FE-S center cycling. Biosci Rep. 1997;17:33-42 pubmed
    ..Iron-sulfur center cycling may also serve adaptive functions by modulating gene expression or by signaling metabolic quiescence. ..
  4. Wright G. On the road to bacterial cell death. Cell. 2007;130:781-3 pubmed
    ..In this issue, Kohanski et al. (2007) provide evidence that the production of reactive oxygen species is a shared mechanism of cell death initiated by bactericidal antibiotics. ..
  5. Bradbury A, Gruer M, Rudd K, Guest J. The second aconitase (AcnB) of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 2):389-400 pubmed
    The second aconitase (AcnB) of Escherichia coli was partially purified from an acnA::kanR mutant lacking AcnA, and the corresponding polypeptide identified by activity staining and weak cross-reactivity with AcnA antiserum...
  6. Ranquet C, Ollagnier de Choudens S, Loiseau L, Barras F, Fontecave M. Cobalt stress in Escherichia coli. The effect on the iron-sulfur proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30442-51 pubmed
    ..We propose a model wherein cobalt competes out iron during synthesis of [Fe-S] clusters in metabolically essential proteins. ..
  7. Kim C, Han K, Ryu K, Kim B, Kim K, Choi S, et al. N-terminal domains of native multidomain proteins have the potential to assist de novo folding of their downstream domains in vivo by acting as solubility enhancers. Protein Sci. 2007;16:635-43 pubmed
    ..The solubilizing ability of N-terminal domains would contribute to the autonomous folding of multidomain proteins in vivo, and based on these results, we propose a model of how N-terminal domains solubilize their downstream domains. ..
  8. Kohanski M, Dwyer D, Hayete B, Lawrence C, Collins J. A common mechanism of cellular death induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Cell. 2007;130:797-810 pubmed
    ..g., reca. ..
  9. Pomposiello P, Koutsolioutsou A, Carrasco D, Demple B. SoxRS-regulated expression and genetic analysis of the yggX gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6624-32 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the direct regulation of the yggX gene by the redox-sensing SoxRS system and provide further evidence for the involvement of yggX in protection of iron-sulfur proteins against oxidative damage. ..
  10. Tsuchiya D, Shimizu N, Tomita M. Cooperativity of two active sites in bacterial homodimeric aconitases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli possesses two kinds of aconitases, aconitase A (AcnA) and B (AcnB), whose structural organizations are different...
  11. Calderón I, Elías A, Fuentes E, Pradenas G, Castro M, Arenas F, et al. Tellurite-mediated disabling of [4Fe-4S] clusters of Escherichia coli dehydratases. Microbiology. 2009;155:1840-6 pubmed publisher
    ..fumarase A (FumA) and aconitase B (AcnB) as well as ROS-resistant fumarase C (FumC) and aconitase A (AcnA) were assayed in cell-free extracts from tellurite-exposed cells in both the presence and absence of oxygen...
  12. Schaller A, Guo M, Gisanrin O, Zhang Y. Escherichia coli genes involved in resistance to pyrazinoic acid, the active component of the tuberculosis drug pyrazinamide. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;211:265-70 pubmed
    ..Two transposon mutants with increased susceptibility to POA were found to harbor mutations in acnA encoding aconitase-1 and ygiY encoding a putative two-component sensor protein...
  13. Tang Y, Guest J. Direct evidence for mRNA binding and post-transcriptional regulation by Escherichia coli aconitases. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 11):3069-79 pubmed
    Escherichia coli contains a stationary-phase aconitase (AcnA) that is induced by iron and oxidative stress, and a major but less stable aconitase (AcnB) synthesized during exponential growth...
  14. Cunningham L, Gruer M, Guest J. Transcriptional regulation of the aconitase genes (acnA and acnB) of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 12):3795-805 pubmed
    Escherichia coli contains two differentially regulated aconitase genes, acnA and acnB...
  15. Bennett B, Gruer M, Guest J, Thomson A. Spectroscopic characterisation of an aconitase (AcnA) of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:317-26 pubmed
    A spectroscopic study of an aconitase, AcnA, from Escherichia coli is presented...
  16. Gardner P, Fridovich I. Superoxide sensitivity of the Escherichia coli aconitase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:19328-33 pubmed
  17. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
  18. Kiley P, Beinert H. The role of Fe-S proteins in sensing and regulation in bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003;6:181-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these regulatory factors provide insights into the chemical versatility of Fe-S clusters. ..
  19. Lu C, Albano C, Bentley W, Rao G. Quantitative and kinetic study of oxidative stress regulons using green fluorescent protein. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;89:574-87 pubmed
    ..Specifically, the sodA, fumC, zwf, acnA, acrAB, and soxS genes from the SoxRS regulon and the katG and ahpC genes from OxyR regulon, which respond to the ..
  20. Tang Y, Quail M, Artymiuk P, Guest J, Green J. Escherichia coli aconitases and oxidative stress: post-transcriptional regulation of sodA expression. Microbiology. 2002;148:1027-37 pubmed
    Escherichia coli possesses two aconitases, a stationary-phase enzyme (AcnA), which is induced by iron and oxidative stress, and a major but less stable enzyme (AcnB), synthesized during exponential growth...
  21. Jordan P, Tang Y, Bradbury A, Thomson A, Guest J. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of Escherichia coli aconitases (AcnA and AcnB). Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 3:739-46 pubmed
    Escherichia coli contains two major aconitases (Acns), AcnA and AcnB. They are distantly related monomeric Fe-S proteins that contain different arrangements of four structural domains...
  22. Gruer M, Artymiuk P, Guest J. The aconitase family: three structural variations on a common theme. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:3-6 pubmed
  23. Prodromou C, Artymiuk P, Guest J. The aconitase of Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence of the aconitase gene and amino acid sequence similarity with mitochondrial aconitases, the iron-responsive-element-binding protein and isopropylmalate isomerases. Eur J Biochem. 1992;204:599-609 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the aconitase gene (acn) of Escherichia coli was determined and used to deduce the primary structure of the enzyme...