Gene Symbol: ackA
Description: acetate kinase A and propionate kinase 2
Alias: ECK2290, JW2293
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     ackA

Top Publications

  1. Nakashima N, Tamura T, Good L. Paired termini stabilize antisense RNAs and enhance conditional gene silencing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:e138 pubmed
    ..PTasRNAs targeted against the ackA gene within the acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase operon (ackA-pta) triggered target mRNA decay and a 78% ..
  2. Rose I, Grunberg Manago M, KOREY S, Ochoa S. Enzymatic phosphorylation of acetate. J Biol Chem. 1954;211:737-56 pubmed
  3. Brown T, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. The enzymic interconversion of acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1977;102:327-36 pubmed
    ..An inducible acetyl-CoA synthetase [acetate: CoA ligase (AMP-forming); EC] effects this uptake of acetate. ..
  4. Levine S, Ardeshir F, Ames G. Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1081-5 pubmed
    ..We selected mutants of both species with deletions covering both the ack and the pta genes; some deletions extended into the histidine transport operon. ..
  5. YOUNG J, Henne K, Morgan J, Konopka A, Ramkrishna D. Integrating cybernetic modeling with pathway analysis provides a dynamic, systems-level description of metabolic control. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;100:542-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The E. coli model successfully describes the metabolic shift that occurs upon deleting the pta-ackA operon that is responsible for fermentative acetate production...
  6. Barak R, Abouhamad W, Eisenbach M. Both acetate kinase and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase are involved in acetate-stimulated change in the direction of flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:985-8 pubmed
    ..With acetate metabolism mutants, we demonstrate that both acetate kinase and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase are involved in this response. Thus, a response was observed when one of these enzymes was missing but not when both were absent. ..
  7. Klein A, Shulla A, Reimann S, Keating D, Wolfe A. The intracellular concentration of acetyl phosphate in Escherichia coli is sufficient for direct phosphorylation of two-component response regulators. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5574-81 pubmed
    Acetyl phosphate, the intermediate of the AckA-Pta pathway, acts as a global signal in Escherichia coli...
  8. Shiloach J, Fass R. Growing E. coli to high cell density--a historical perspective on method development. Biotechnol Adv. 2005;23:345-57 pubmed
    ..Additional research on the effects of heterologous protein biosynthesis on signal transduction, proteolysis and post transcription events in E. coli may improve its productivity. ..
  9. Hasona A, Kim Y, Healy F, Ingram L, Shanmugam K. Pyruvate formate lyase and acetate kinase are essential for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on xylose. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7593-600 pubmed
    ..An ackA mutant, lacking the ability to generate ATP from acetyl phosphate, also failed to grow in xylose minimal medium ..

More Information


  1. Mizrahi I, Biran D, Ron E. Involvement of the Pta-AckA pathway in protein folding and aggregation. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the involvement of the acetyl phosphate pathway in chaperone capabilities, in addition to their effect on proteolysis. ..
  2. Koplove H, Cooney C. Acetate kinase production by Escherichia coli during steady-state and transient growth in continuous culture. J Bacteriol. 1978;134:992-1001 pubmed
    ..Active protein synthesis is shown to be necessary to achieve the enhanced specific synthesis rates and enzyme yields. The results from these transient responses are discussed in terms of a conceptful model for metabolic regulation. ..
  3. Guest J. Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli K12 with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. Genetic studies with menaquinone and fluoroacetate-resistant mutants. J Gen Microbiol. 1979;115:259-71 pubmed
    ..All four types had genetic lesions clustered between the men and purF sites. Average cotransduction frequencies with relevant markers were: nalA (4%), men (27 to 35%) and purF (71 to 80%). ..
  4. Singh R, Yang Y, Lu B, Bennett G, San K. Expression of the pfl gene and resulting metabolite flux distribution in nuo and ackA-pta E. coli mutant strains. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:898-902 pubmed
    Our laboratory previously studied the interaction between nuo and the acetate-producing pathway encoded by ackA-pta in Escherichia coli...
  5. Groban E, Clarke E, Salis H, Miller S, Voigt C. Kinetic buffering of cross talk between bacterial two-component sensors. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:380-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a kinetic model of buffering where both the cognate bifunctional phosphatase activity and the competition between regulator proteins for phosphate prevent cross talk in vivo. ..
  6. Fox D, Roseman S. Isolation and characterization of homogeneous acetate kinase from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:13487-97 pubmed
    ..D., and Roseman, S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 13498-13503) shows that the phosphoryl group of phosphoacetate kinase can also be reversibly transferred to Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system. ..
  7. Prüss B, Wolfe A. Regulation of acetyl phosphate synthesis and degradation, and the control of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:973-84 pubmed
    ..observations, we measured the intracellular concentration of acetyl-CoA, the level of expression from the pta and ackA promoters, and the activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase derived from cell lysates...
  8. Rhie H, Dennis D. The function of ackA and pta genes is necessary for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. Can J Microbiol. 1995;41 Suppl 1:200-6 pubmed
    ..coli carrying the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) biosynthesis pathway on a plasmid (pha+), the function of the ackA (acetate kinase) and pta (phosphotransacetylase) genes is necessary for efficient incorporation of 3-..
  9. Pascal M, Chippaux M, Abou Jaoudé A, Blaschkowski H, Knappe J. Mutants of Escherichia coli K12 with defects in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism. J Gen Microbiol. 1981;124:35-42 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that anaerobic nitrite reduction with pyruvate involves at least the dehydrogenase subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. ..
  10. Matsuyama A, Yamamoto H, Nakano E. Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 ackA gene. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:577-80 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli K-12 ackA gene, which encodes an acetate kinase, was cloned. The acetate kinase activities of ackA+ plasmid-containing strains were amplified 160- to 180-fold...
  11. Todhunter J, Purich D. Evidence for the formation of a gamma-phosphorylated glutamyl residue in the Escherichia coli acetate kinase reaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974;60:273-80 pubmed
  12. Yun N, San K, Bennett G. Enhancement of lactate and succinate formation in adhE or pta-ackA mutants of NADH dehydrogenase-deficient Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;99:1404-12 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of pta-ackA in NDH-I- or NDH-II-deficient strains lead to increased D-lactate formation and decreased ethanol formation...
  13. Avison M, Horton R, Walsh T, Bennett P. Escherichia coli CreBC is a global regulator of gene expression that responds to growth in minimal media. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26955-61 pubmed
    ..The cre regulon genes are: the ackA/pta operon, the products of which collectively catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into acetate and ATP; talA, ..
  14. Blattler W, Knowles J. Stereochemical course of phosphokinases. The use of adenosine [gamma-(S)-16O,17O,18O]triphosphate and the mechanistic consequences for the reactions catalyzed by glycerol kinase, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and acetate kinase. Biochemistry. 1979;18:3927-33 pubmed
    ..The sterochemical approach provides an access to the otherwise cryptic events that are involved in phosphoryl-group transfer within the ternary complexes of these kinases and their substrates. ..
  15. Shi I, Stansbury J, Kuzminov A. A defect in the acetyl coenzyme A<-->acetate pathway poisons recombinational repair-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1266-75 pubmed
    ..We isolated insertions in ackA and pta, which comprise a two-gene operon responsible for the acetate<-->acetyl coenzyme A interconversion...
  16. Sanchez A, Bennett G, San K. Novel pathway engineering design of the anaerobic central metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli to increase succinate yield and productivity. Metab Eng. 2005;7:229-39 pubmed
    ..It was also observed that an adhE, ldhA and ack-pta mutant designated as SBS990MG, was able to achieve a high succinate yield similar to SBS550MG when expressing a Bacillus subtilis NADH-insensitive citrate synthase from a plasmid. ..
  17. Karpavichene D, Kulene V, Kulis I, Glemzha A. [Acetate kinase chromatography on agarose derivatives]. Biokhimiia. 1978;43:446-52 pubmed
    ..e. 5.0-9.0 and was not adsorbed on hexamethylenediamine agarose at pH 4.0 and on chlorotriasinehexamethylenediamine sepharose--at pH 9.0. The mechanism of the enzyme-adsorbent interaction is discussed. ..
  18. Todhunter J, Reichel K, Purich D. A kinetically important phosphoryl-enzyme intermediary in the intrinsic purine nucleoside-5'-diphosphokinase activity of Escherichia coli acetate kinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1976;174:120-8 pubmed
  19. Wanner B, Wilmes Riesenberg M. Involvement of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, and acetyl phosphate synthesis in control of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2124-30 pubmed
    ..ADP are converted into acetate, coenzyme A, and ATP via the enzymes phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA). It responds to the synthesis of acetyl phosphate, an intermediate in the Pta-AckA pathway...
  20. Fredericks C, Shibata S, Aizawa S, Reimann S, Wolfe A. Acetyl phosphate-sensitive regulation of flagellar biogenesis and capsular biosynthesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:734-47 pubmed
    ..Temporal control of flagella biogenesis implicates the Rcs phosphorelay (and, by extension, acetyl approximately P) in the transition of motile, planktonic individuals into sessile biofilm communities. ..
  21. Lin H, Bennett G, San K. Genetic reconstruction of the aerobic central metabolism in Escherichia coli for the absolute aerobic production of succinate. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;89:148-56 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (sdhAB, icd, iclR) and acetate pathways (poxB, ackA-pta) of E. coli were created to construct the glyoxylate cycle for aerobic succinate production...
  22. Jantama K, Zhang X, Moore J, Shanmugam K, Svoronos S, Ingram L. Eliminating side products and increasing succinate yields in engineered strains of Escherichia coli C. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101:881-93 pubmed publisher
    ..combining the deletion of genes that disrupt fermentation pathways for alternative products (ldhA::FRT, adhE::FRT, ackA::FRT, focA-pflB::FRT, mgsA, poxB) with growth-based selection for increased ATP production...
  23. Hong J, Hunt A, Masters P, Lieberman M. Requirements of acetyl phosphate for the binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1213-7 pubmed
    ..Thus acetyl phosphate has been implicated in active transport. Evidence is also presented that neither the protonmotive force nor the ecf gene product is required for the shock-sensitive transport systems. ..
  24. Katayama A, Tsujii A, Wada A, Nishino T, Ishihama A. Systematic search for zinc-binding proteins in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2403-13 pubmed five known zinc-binding proteins, nine zinc-binding proteins were newly identified including: acetate kinase (AckA), DnaK, serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA), transketolase isozymes (TktA/TktB), translation elongation factor ..
  25. Romaniuk P, Eckstein F. Structure of the metal-nucleotide complex in the acetate kinase reaction. A study with gamma-32P-labeled phosphorothioate analogs of ATP. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:7322-8 pubmed
    ..The classification of acetate kinase as an enzyme having a type I mechanism (Dunaway-Mariano, D. and Cleland, W. W. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 1506-1515) for kinases, is discussed. ..
  26. Koplove H, Cooney C. A continuous assay for an intracellular enzyme: the analysis of acetate kinase in Escherichia coli. Anal Biochem. 1976;72:297-304 pubmed
  27. Fong S, Palsson B. Metabolic gene-deletion strains of Escherichia coli evolve to computationally predicted growth phenotypes. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1056-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that computational models can be used to predict the eventual effects of genetic modifications. ..
  28. Hwang B, Lee H, Yang Y, Joo H, Kim B. Characterization and investigation of substrate specificity of the sugar aminotransferase WecE from E. coli K12. Chem Biol. 2004;11:915-25 pubmed
  29. Wolfe A, Chang D, Walker J, Seitz Partridge J, Vidaurri M, Lange C, et al. Evidence that acetyl phosphate functions as a global signal during biofilm development. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:977-88 pubmed
  30. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gene position, with regard to the C period, and gene function are important factors to incorporate into design criteria for synthetic bacterial genomes. ..
  31. Ramakrishnan R, Schuster M, Bourret R. Acetylation at Lys-92 enhances signaling by the chemotaxis response regulator protein CheY. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4918-23 pubmed
    ..Thus acetylation probably affects signal generation by CheY at a step after switch binding. ..
  32. Anthony R, Spector L. Phosphorylated acetate kinase. Its isolation and reactivity. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:2120-5 pubmed
  33. Anthony R, Spector L. A phosphoenzyme intermediary in acetate kinase action. J Biol Chem. 1970;245:6739-41 pubmed
  34. Wong S, Wong L. Evidence for an essential arginine residue at the active site of Escherichia coli acetate kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981;660:142-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that an arginine residue is located at the active site of acetate kinase and is essential for its catalytic activity, probably as a binding site for the negatively charged phosphate group of the substrates. ..
  35. Mizrahi I, Biran D, Ron E. Requirement for the acetyl phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli ATP-dependent proteolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:201-11 pubmed
    ..In this communication we present evidence for the general role of the acetyl phosphate pathway in protein degradation. ..
  36. Sule P, Wadhawan T, Carr N, Horne S, Wolfe A, Prüss B. A combination of assays reveals biomass differences in biofilms formed by Escherichia coli mutants. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The ATP assay, in combination with other quantitative and qualitative assays, will allow us to perform genetic studies on the regulatory network that underlies the early steps in E. coli biofilm formation. ..
  37. Yang Y, Bennett G, San K. Effect of inactivation of nuo and ackA-pta on redistribution of metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999;65:291-7 pubmed
    ..Interactions between nuo and the acetate-producing pathway encoded by ackA-pta were investigated by examining the metabolic patterns of several mutant strains under anaerobic growth ..
  38. Kakuda H, Shiroishi K, Hosono K, Ichihara S. Construction of Pta-Ack pathway deletion mutants of Escherichia coli and characteristic growth profiles of the mutants in a rich medium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1994;58:2232-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that a pathway(s), other than the Pta-Ack pathway, functions in the control of excess carbon flow in the mutants. ..
  39. Wong S, Wong L. Inactivation of Escherichia coli acetate kinase by N-ethylmaleimide. Protection by substrates and products. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980;615:121-31 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the binding sites for acetate and acetyl phosphate are different from that of the adenosine binding domain, but are in close vicinity to the phosphoryl binding regions of the nucleotides. ..
  40. Spector L. Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:2626-30 pubmed
    ..These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. ..
  41. Anthony R, Spector L. Exchange reactions catalyzed by acetate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:6129-35 pubmed
  42. Purich D, Fromm H. Evaluation of the phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate concept in the acetate kinase and hexokinase reactions from kinetic studies. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;149:307-15 pubmed
  43. Lee T, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Overproduction of acetate kinase activates the phosphate regulon in the absence of the phoR and phoM functions in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2245-9 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide sequence analysis and enzyme assays revealed that the DNA fragment contained the ackA gene, which codes for acetate kinase...
  44. Skarstedt M, Silverstein E. Escherichia coli acetate kinase mechanism studied by net initial rate, equilibrium, and independent isotopic exchange kinetics. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:6775-83 pubmed
    ..This mechanism includes a phosphoenzyme intermediate and requires enzyme-bount MgADP for phosphorylation of the enzyme by acetylphosphate. ..
  45. Webb B, Todhunter J, Purich D. Studies on the kinetic mechanism and the phosphoryl-enzyme compound of the Escherichia coli acetate kinase reaction. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1976;173:282-92 pubmed
  46. Hesslinger C, Fairhurst S, Sawers G. Novel keto acid formate-lyase and propionate kinase enzymes are components of an anaerobic pathway in Escherichia coli that degrades L-threonine to propionate. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:477-92 pubmed
    ..Double null mutants deficient in phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA) or AckA and TdcD were unable to metabolize threonine to propionate, indicating that propionyl-CoA and propionyl-..
  47. Kakuda H, Hosono K, Shiroishi K, Ichihara S. Identification and characterization of the ackA (acetate kinase A)-pta (phosphotransacetylase) operon and complementation analysis of acetate utilization by an ackA-pta deletion mutant of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1994;116:916-22 pubmed
    The pta gene encoding phosphotransacetylase was cloned on a high copy plasmid with or without the ackA gene encoding acetate kinase in Escherichia coli...
  48. Kulis I, Kurtinaĭtene B, Karpavichene D, Kulene V. [Effect of the redox state of glutathione on acetate kinase activity in E. coli]. Biokhimiia. 1985;50:307-11 pubmed
    ..4 or 0.09 at saturating concentrations of ATP (pH 8.0, 25 degrees C). The physiological level of reduced and oxidized glutathione can modulate the acetate kinase activity in vivo. ..
  49. Swartz J, Pace G, Solomon B, Colton C, Archer M. Purification of acetate kinase by affinity chromatography. Prep Biochem. 1978;8:479-502 pubmed
    ..The results allow a significant improvement in affinity column performance and have important implications for scale-up procedures. ..
  50. Nakashima N, Tamura T. Conditional gene silencing of multiple genes with antisense RNAs and generation of a mutator strain of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:e103 pubmed publisher
    ..All the vectors were co-transformable; the antisense RNAs against lacZ, ackA, pta and pepN were co-expressed, and silencing of all the target genes was confirmed...