Gene Symbol: COX2
Description: COX2
Alias: COX2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
Species: eastern European house mouse

Top Publications

  1. Barbieri S, Amadio P, Gianellini S, Tarantino E, Zacchi E, Veglia F, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin regulates arterial thrombus formation by suppressing tissue factor in a sirtuin-1-dependent-manner. Circulation. 2012;126:1373-84 pubmed publisher
  2. Yu Z, Crichton I, Tang S, Hui Y, Ricciotti E, Levin M, et al. Disruption of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway attenuates atherogenesis consequent to COX-2 deletion in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6727-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Promotion of atherogenesis by postnatal COX-2 deletion affords a mechanistic explanation for this observation. Coincident inhibition of FLAP may offer an approach to attenuating such a risk from NSAIDs. ..
  3. Lee J, Song H, Ju S, Lee S, Kwon H, Eum W, et al. Differential regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by superoxide dismutase in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Tat-SOD inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, IkappaBalpha degradation and activation of MAP kinases. These data suggest that SOD differentially regulate expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells...
  4. Park S, Chevallier N, Tejwani K, Hung M, Maruyama H, Golde T, et al. Deficiency in either COX-1 or COX-2 genes does not affect amyloid beta protein burden in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:286-292 pubmed publisher
  5. Boesen E. Chronic elevation of IL-1? induces diuresis via a cyclooxygenase 2-mediated mechanism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and did not alter urinary Na? or K? excretion. These data indicate a critical role for COX-2 in mediating the effects of chronic IL-1? elevation on the kidney. ..
  6. Ahmetaj Shala B, Kirkby N, Knowles R, Al Yamani M, Mazi S, Wang Z, et al. Evidence that links loss of cyclooxygenase-2 with increased asymmetric dimethylarginine: novel explanation of cardiovascular side effects associated with anti-inflammatory drugs. Circulation. 2015;131:633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA as a biomarker and mechanistic bridge between renal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition and systemic vascular dysfunction. ..
  7. Chung D, Yoo K, Hwang I, Kim D, Chung J, Lee C, et al. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in endothelium and increases microglia in the mouse hippocampus. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:531-41 pubmed publisher
  8. Choo Wing R, Syed M, Harijith A, Bowen B, Pryhuber G, Jan r C, et al. Hyperoxia and interferon-?-induced injury in developing lungs occur via cyclooxygenase-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent pathway. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:749-57 pubmed publisher
    We noted a marked increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) and the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in newborn murine lung on exposure to hyperoxia and IFN-?...
  9. Neilson A, Djuric Z, Ren J, Hong Y, Sen A, Lager C, et al. Effect of cyclooxygenase genotype and dietary fish oil on colonic eicosanoids in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:966-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE(2) levels. ..

More Information


  1. Jedinak A, Dudhgaonkar S, Wu Q, Simon J, Sliva D. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 signaling. Nutr J. 2011;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies. ..
  2. Tang S, Gao J, Wen S, Tong H, Yan Z, Liu R, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is correlated with lncRNA-COX-2 in cirrhotic mice induced by carbon tetrachloride. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:1507-1512 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that expression of COX?2 and lncRNA?COX?2 increased with the progression of liver fibrosis. LncRNA-COX-2 may potentially be considered as a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. ..
  3. Alam S, Pal A, Kumar R, Dwivedi P, Das M, Ansari K. EGFR-mediated Akt and MAPKs signal pathways play a crucial role in patulin-induced cell proliferation in primary murine keratinocytes via modulation of Cyclin D1 and COX-2 expression. Mol Carcinog. 2014;53:988-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of EGFR or the Ras/MAPKs, PI3/Akt pathways with different pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of NF-?B, c-jun, c-fos, Cyclin D1, and COX-2 with siRNA inhibited PAT-induced PMKs proliferation. ..
  4. Kamata M, Hosono K, Fujita T, Kamata K, Majima M. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in the development of interstitial fibrosis in kidneys following unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;70:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that COX-2 plays a protective role against fibrosis in UUO kidneys and suggests that supplementation of COX-2 products, such as PG analogues, will be a good option for preventing interstitial fibrosis. ..
  5. Kashiwagi S, Hosono K, Suzuki T, Takeda A, Uchinuma E, Majima M. Role of COX-2 in lymphangiogenesis and restoration of lymphatic flow in secondary lymphedema. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study therefore suggests that lymphangiogenesis, together with recurrence of lymph flow after surgical induction of lymphedema, is upregulated by COX-2 possibly via generation of PGs. ..
  6. Kim H, Hwang K, Park S. Extracts of Actinidia arguta stems inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses through nuclear factor-κB pathway in Raw 264.7 cells. Nutr Res. 2014;34:1008-16 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that chloroform layer of A. arguta exerted antiinflammatory effects by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. ..
  7. Brown J, Nemeth K, Kushnir Sukhov N, Metcalfe D, Mezey E. Bone marrow stromal cells inhibit mast cell function via a COX2-dependent mechanism. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanisms of MC suppression by BMSCs were determined through use of inhibitors or antibodies to COX1, COX2, nitric oxide, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, EP1-4 receptors, TGF-β and IL-10...
  8. Khan A, Khan R, Qamar W, Lateef A, Rehman M, Tahir M, et al. Geraniol attenuates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mouse skin: possible role of p38 MAP Kinase and NF-?B. Exp Mol Pathol. 2013;94:419-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results suggest that GOH attenuates early tumor promotional changes, and it may serve as one of the various ways to prevent carcinogenesis...
  9. Park J, Shu L, Shayman J. Differential involvement of COX1 and COX2 in the vasculopathy associated with the alpha-galactosidase A-knockout mouse. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific inhibition of COX1 or COX2 in endothelium-intact rings from Gla(-/0) mice decreased overall phenylephrine contractility compared with ..
  10. Carlson N, Rojas M, Redd J, Tang P, Wood B, Hill K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in oligodendrocytes increases sensitivity to excitotoxic death. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:25 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of how COX-2 expression influences oligodendrocyte death leading to demyelination may have important ramifications for future treatments for MS...
  11. A S, Bansal K, Holla S, Verma Kumar S, Sharma P, Balaji K. ESAT-6 induced COX-2 expression involves coordinated interplay between PI3K and MAPK signaling. Mol Immunol. 2012;49:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings would serve as a paradigm to understand pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection and clearly pave a way towards development of novel therapeutics...
  12. Nam S, Kim J, Yoo D, Choi J, Kim W, Jung H, et al. Comparison of pharmacological and genetic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2: effects on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. J Vet Sci. 2015;16:245-51 pubmed
    ..Additionally, genetic inhibition of COX-2 strongly reduced neural stem cell populations, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to pharmacological inhibition. ..
  13. Egydio F, Ribeiro D, Noguti J, Tufik S, Andersen M. Influence of sleep deprivation and morphine on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in skin of hairless mice. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2012;22:577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Sleep deprivation did not modulate outcomes induced by morphine. Morphine, not sleep loss, induces cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase immunoexpression in the skin of hairless mice. ..
  14. Göbel C, Breitenbuecher F, Kalkavan H, Hähnel P, Kasper S, Hoffarth S, et al. Functional expression cloning identifies COX-2 as a suppressor of antigen-specific cancer immunity. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1568 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, COX-2, which is frequently induced in colorectal cancer, contributes to immune evasion and resistance to antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy by local suppression of T-cell effector functions. ..
  15. Shweash M, Adrienne McGachy H, Schroeder J, Neamatallah T, Bryant C, Millington O, et al. Leishmania mexicana promastigotes inhibit macrophage IL-12 production via TLR-4 dependent COX-2, iNOS and arginase-1 expression. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1800-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Hermankova B, Zajicova A, Javorkova E, Chudícková M, Trosan P, Hajkova M, et al. Suppression of IL-10 production by activated B cells via a cell contact-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 pathway upregulated in IFN-γ-treated mesenchymal stem cells. Immunobiology. 2016;221:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The results thus suggest that IFN-γ-treated MSCs strongly inhibit IL-10 production by activated B cells by a mechanism requiring cell contact and involving the Cox-2 pathway. ..
  17. Inagaki M, Nishimura T, Akanuma S, Nakanishi T, Tachikawa M, Tamai I, et al. Co-localization of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 with cyclooxygenase-1 in layer II of murine placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Placenta. 2017;53:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SynT-II could contribute to placental synthesis of PGE2 for release into the fetal-placental circulation. ..
  18. Aikawa S, Kano K, Inoue A, Wang J, Saigusa D, Nagamatsu T, et al. Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid-LPA3 signaling at the embryo-epithelial boundary controls decidualization pathways. EMBO J. 2017;36:2146-2160 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ATX-LPA-LPA3 signaling at the embryo-epithelial boundary induces decidualization via the canonical HB-EGF and COX-2 pathways. ..
  19. Jang H, Kim S. Taurine exerts anti-osteoclastogenesis activity via inhibiting ROS generation, JNK phosphorylation and COX-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2013;33:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of COX-2 expression and JNK phoshorylation could be an important mechanism by which taurine exerts anti-osteoclastogeneis. ..
  20. Tan A, Konczak I, Ramzan I, Zabaras D, Sze D. Potential antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and proapoptotic anticancer activities of Kakadu plum and Illawarra plum polyphenolic fractions. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..KPF5 also induced apoptosis and DNA damage in HT-29 cells, as determined by the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. ..
  21. Tong Q, Gong A, Zhang X, Lin C, Ma S, Chen J, et al. LincRNA-Cox2 modulates TNF-α-induced transcription of Il12b gene in intestinal epithelial cells through regulation of Mi-2/NuRD-mediated epigenetic histone modifications. FASEB J. 2016;30:1187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the up-regulated lincRNAs, lincRNA-Cox2, is an early-responsive lincRNA induced by TNF-α through activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway...
  22. McKenna S, Eckman M, Parker A, Bok R, Hurt K, Wright C. Perinatal Endotoxemia Induces Sustained Hepatic COX-2 Expression through an NF?B-Dependent Mechanism. J Innate Immun. 2016;8:386-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This may represent a link between the innate immune response and the pathogenesis of diseases associated with preterm birth. ..
  23. Gregorov S, Divina P, Storchova R, Trachtulec Z, Fotopulosova V, Svenson K, et al. Mouse consomic strains: exploiting genetic divergence between Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus subspecies. Genome Res. 2008;18:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..PWD-mt conplastic strain. A pilot-phenotyping experiment project revealed a high number of variations among B6.PWD consomics...
  24. Borges T, Alves É, Vasconcelos H, Carneiro F, Nicola A, Magalhaes K, et al. Differences in the modulation of reactive species, lipid bodies, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and PPAR-? in cerebral malaria-susceptible and resistant mice. Immunobiology. 2017;222:604-619 pubmed publisher
  25. Hamzic N, Blomqvist A, Nilsberth C. Immune-induced expression of lipocalin-2 in brain endothelial cells: relationship with interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2 and the febrile response. J Neuroendocrinol. 2013;25:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of lipocalin-2 on fever is small, being sex-dependent and ambient temperature-specific, and thus lipocalin-2 cannot be considered as a major mediator of the IL-6-dependent fever generating pathway. ..
  26. Akla N, Pratt J, Annabi B. Concanavalin-A triggers inflammatory response through JAK/STAT3 signalling and modulates MT1-MMP regulation of COX-2 in mesenchymal stromal cells. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:2498-506 pubmed publisher
  27. Han S, Lee J, Kim C, Nam D, Chung W, Lee S, et al. Capillarisin inhibits iNOS, COX-2 expression, and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages via the suppression of ERK, JNK, and NF-?B activation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:34-42 pubmed publisher
  28. Shih R, Yang C. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:86 pubmed publisher
    ..3. Our results reinforce the emerging role of cerebral endothelium-derived HO-1 as a protector against cerebral vascular inflammation triggered by bacterial infection...
  29. Kang D, Yoon G, Cho J, Lee S, Lee S, Park H, et al. Neoagarooligosaccharides prevent septic shock by modulating A20-and cyclooxygenase-2-mediated interleukin-10 secretion in a septic-shock mouse model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:998-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that NAOs have a beneficial preventive effect in septic shock correlated with the enhancement of IL-10 via the induction of A20 and COX-2. ..
  30. Shin J, Yun C, Cho Y, Baek N, Choi M, Jeong T, et al. Indole-containing fractions of Brassica rapa inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by inactivating nuclear factor-?B. J Med Food. 2011;14:1527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the expressional inhibitions of iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-6 caused by an attenuation of NF-?B activation are responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of IBR. ..
  31. Lacroix A, Toussay X, Anenberg E, Lecrux C, Ferreirós N, Karagiannis A, et al. COX-2-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Pyramidal Neurons Contributes to Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11791-810 pubmed publisher
    ..These original findings will certainly change the current view of NVC. ..
  32. Kogiso M, Shinohara T, Dorey C, Shibata Y. Cholera toxin induces a shift from inactive to active cyclooxygenase 2 in alveolar macrophages activated by Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Infect Immun. 2013;81:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that inclusion of CT in the intranasal BCG vaccination enhances COX-2-mediated PGE(2) release by alveolar macrophages and further suggest that the effect of CT in vivo is mediated by other lung cells. ..
  33. Lee J, Sayers B, Chun K, Lao H, Shipley Phillips J, Bonner J, et al. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce COX-2 and iNOS expression via MAP kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012;9:14 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophages is ERK1,2-dependent, while iNOS induction by MWCNTs is ERK1,2-independent. Our data also suggest contributory physicochemical factors other than residual Ni catalyst play a role in COX-2 induction to MWCNT...
  34. Bansal K, Kapoor N, Narayana Y, Puzo G, Gilleron M, Balaji K. PIM2 Induced COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in macrophages requires PI3K and Notch1 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4911 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data implicate PI3K and Notch1 signaling as obligatory early proximal signaling events during PIM2 induced COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in macrophages. ..
  35. Das P, De T, Chakraborti T. Leishmania donovani secretory serine protease alters macrophage inflammatory response via COX-2 mediated PGE-2 production. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2014;51:542-51 pubmed
  36. Steenport M, Khan K, Du B, Barnhard S, Dannenberg A, Falcone D. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 induce macrophage MMP-9: evidence for the role of TNF-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2. J Immunol. 2009;183:8119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also suggest that this nexus is targetable utilizing anti-TNF-alpha therapies and/or selective EP4 antagonists...
  37. Zhou J, Lei B, Li H, Zhu L, Wang L, Tao H, et al. MicroRNA-144 is regulated by CP2 and decreases COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2597 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, miR-144 regulated mGC apoptosis and affected follicular atresia, but these activities did not appear to be through COX-2 and Smad4. Taken together, we revealed an important CP2/miR-144/COX-2/PGE2/ovulation pathway in mGCs. ..
  38. Yanni S, McCollum G, Penn J. Genetic deletion of COX-2 diminishes VEGF production in mouse retinal Müller cells. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that PGE(2), signaling through the EP(2) and/or EP(4) receptor and PKA, mediates the VEGF response of Müller cells...
  39. Berthou F, Ceppo F, Dumas K, Massa F, Vergoni B, Alemany S, et al. The Tpl2 Kinase Regulates the COX-2/Prostaglandin E2 Axis in Adipocytes in Inflammatory Conditions. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1025-36 pubmed
  40. Park E, Cheenpracha S, Chang L, Kondratyuk T, Pezzuto J. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-?-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:971-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating antiinflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity...
  41. Chen H, Ma F, Hu X, Jin T, Xiong C, Teng X. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXR? in senescent macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of RXR?, a nuclear receptor that can suppress NF-?B activity, mediates the elevation of COX2 expression and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages...
  42. Lee W, Ahn G, Arachchillage J, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee B, et al. A polysaccharide isolated from Ecklonia cava fermented by Lactobacillus brevis inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor-?B in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Med Food. 2011;14:1546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that VLFEP exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via inhibiting the NF-?B pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. ..
  43. Jurk D, Wilson C, Passos J, Oakley F, Correia Melo C, Greaves L, et al. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice. Nat Commun. 2014;2:4172 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that systemic chronic inflammation can accelerate ageing via ROS-mediated exacerbation of telomere dysfunction and cell senescence in the absence of any other genetic or environmental factor...
  44. Kirkby N, Lundberg M, Wright W, Warner T, Paul Clark M, Mitchell J. COX-2 protects against atherosclerosis independently of local vascular prostacyclin: identification of COX-2 associated pathways implicate Rgl1 and lymphocyte networks. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98165 pubmed publisher
  45. Fredenburgh L, Velandia M, Ma J, Olszak T, Cernadas M, Englert J, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency leads to intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased mortality during polymicrobial sepsis. J Immunol. 2011;187:5255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that epithelial expression of COX-2 in the ileum is a critical modulator of tight junction protein expression and intestinal barrier function during sepsis...
  46. Matsuzuka T, Miller K, Pickel L, Doi C, Ayuzawa R, Tamura M. The synergistic induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in lung fibroblasts by angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;320:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also suggested that the AT(1) receptor in lung fibroblasts may be a rational target for chemoprevention of lung cancer. ..
  47. Kirkby N, Chan M, Zaiss A, Garcia Vaz E, Jiao J, Berglund L, et al. Systematic study of constitutive cyclooxygenase-2 expression: Role of NF-κB and NFAT transcriptional pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:434-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Machado E, Carlos D, Louren o E, Souza G, Sorgi C, Silva E, et al. Cyclooxygenase-derived mediators regulate the immunological control of Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:18-32 pubmed publisher
  49. Gaetano L, Watanabe K, Barogi S, Coceani F. Cyclooxygenase-2/microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 complex in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus of the mouse: involvement through fever to intravenous lipopolysaccharide. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;200:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis was limited to the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus (AH/POA). We found upregulation of the COX2 transcript together with an upward trend for the mPGES1 transcript during Phase 1...
  50. Fiebich B, Mu oz E, Rose T, Weiss G, McGregor G. Molecular targets of the antiinflammatory Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw): inhibition of TNF? and COX-2 gene expression by preventing activation of AP-1. Phytother Res. 2012;26:806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This is novel evidence of a possible mechanism of action of this antiinflammatory drug...
  51. Ishikawa T, Jain N, Herschman H. Cox-2 gene expression in chemically induced skin papillomas cannot predict subsequent tumor fate. Mol Oncol. 2010;4:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated Cox-2 promoter-driven luciferase signal can be detected when papillomas first become visible, but not before this time...
  52. Aljofan M, Ding H. High glucose increases expression of cyclooxygenase-2, increases oxidative stress and decreases the generation of nitric oxide in mouse microvessel endothelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:669-75 pubmed publisher
  53. Zhuang Y, Zhao F, Liang J, Deng X, Zhang Y, Ding G, et al. Activation of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 Cascade via NLRP3 Inflammasome Contributes to Albumin-Induced Proximal Tubule Cell Injury. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:797-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 axis could be activated by albumin in the proximal tubular cells via a NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated mechanism and could thus contribute to proteinuria-related renal tubular cell injury. ..
  54. Straiker A, Wager Miller J, Hu S, Blankman J, Cravatt B, Mackie K. COX-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase can regulate the time course of depolarization-induced suppression of excitation. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:1672-83 pubmed publisher
  55. Tian J, Lambertz I, Berton T, Rundhaug J, Kiguchi K, Shirley S, et al. Transgenic insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulates activation of COX-2 signaling in mammary glands. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51:973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  56. Sierra J, Hobbs S, Chaturvedi R, Yan F, Wilson K, Peek R, et al. Induction of COX-2 expression by Helicobacter pylori is mediated by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in gastric epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;305:G196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that aberrant activation of the EGFR-COX-2 axis may lower the threshold for carcinogenesis associated with chronic H. pylori infection...
  57. An Y, Belevych N, Wang Y, Zhang H, Herschman H, Chen Q, et al. Neuronal and nonneuronal COX-2 expression confers neurotoxic and neuroprotective phenotypes in response to excitotoxin challenge. J Neurosci Res. 2014;92:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, COX-2-dependent neurotoxicity was mediated, at least in part, via the activation of the EP1 receptor. These results show that Cox-2 expression induced in different cell types can confer opposite effects. ..
  58. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Hirayama Y, Ota A, Uematsu S, Akira S, Sasaki Y. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 are both required for ischaemic excitotoxicity. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:1174-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and COX-2 are co-induced by excess glutamate in ischaemic brain. These enzymes are co-localized and act together to exacerbate stroke injury, by excessive PGE(2) production...
  59. Liu D, Li X, Li H, Li X, Ye W. [Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a mouse macula densa cell lines and signal transduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2007;29:78-82 pubmed
    ..01). LS can induce the expression of COX-2 in MMDD1 cells, which may be involved in the activation of p38 MAP kinase, p44/42 kinase, AP-1, and NF-kappaB pathways. ..
  60. Huang J, Yuan S, Wang D, Wu Q, Wang X, Pi C, et al. The role of COX-2 in mediating the effect of PTEN on BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Biomaterials. 2014;35:9649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that PTEN plays an important role in regulating BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs, which may be mediated by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to modulate the expression of COX-2. ..
  61. Basudhar D, Bharadwaj G, Cheng R, Jain S, Shi S, Heinecke J, et al. Synthesis and chemical and biological comparison of nitroxyl- and nitric oxide-releasing diazeniumdiolate-based aspirin derivatives. J Med Chem. 2013;56:7804-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic, and contractile properties suggest the potential of HNO-NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, or heart failure. ..
  62. Zhou Y, Luo W, Zhang Y, Li H, Huang D, Liu B. Cyclo-oxygenase-1 or -2-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid in endothelium-dependent contraction of mouse arteries. Exp Physiol. 2013;98:1225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results imply that some of the PGI2 involved in vasoconstrictor activity of endothelial COX-mediated metabolism could possibly be generated from PGH2 in medial smooth muscle. ..
  63. Panaro M, Pricci M, Meziani F, Ragot T, Andriantsitohaina R, Mitolo V, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin protective role on endotoxin-induced mouse cardiomyocyte mortality. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2011;11:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly support the hypothesis of a link between iNOS-dependent NO overproduction and LPS-induced cell loss with a selective protective role allotted to COX-2 and deriving prostacyclins...
  64. Xie Y, Chen R, Zhang X, Yu Y, Yang Y, Zou Y, et al. Blockade of interleukin-17A protects against coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis by increasing COX-2/PGE2 production in the heart. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results hint that the Th17/IL-17 axis is intimately associated with viral replication in acute myocarditis via induction of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2. ..
  65. Lu L, Loi F, Nathan K, Lin T, Pajarinen J, Gibon E, et al. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages promote Osteogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells via the COX-2-prostaglandin E2 pathway. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:2378-2385 pubmed publisher
    ..2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2378-2385, 2017. ..
  66. Du H, Chen X, Zhang J, Chen C. Inhibition of COX-2 expression by endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is mediated via PPAR-?. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1533-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CB(1) receptor-dependent PPAR? expression is an important and novel signalling pathway in endocannabinoid 2-AG-produced resolution of neuroinflammation in response to pro-inflammatory insults...
  67. Hayashi G, Shen Y, Pedersen T, Newman J, Pook M, Cortopassi G. Frataxin deficiency increases cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins in cell and animal models of Friedreich's ataxia. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6838-47 pubmed publisher
    ..While constitutive COX1 was unchanged, inducible COX2 expression was elevated over 1.35-fold (P < 0.05) in two Friedreich's mouse models and Friedreich's lymphocytes...
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    ..These results suggest that at least some TRPV1 channel antagonists, such as AMG9810 and CPZ, may be candidate anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of sepsis. ..
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    ..Collectively, these results suggest that the ability of AA to up-regulate COX-2 expression through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway underlies AA carcinogenicity. ..
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    ..Promoter deletion analysis confirmed that E4BP4 transcriptionally represses COX2 promoter activity, whereas COX2 overexpression reversed the acceleration of E4BP4 in adipogenesis...
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    ..In conclusion, GL exerts significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by attenuating the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. ..