Gene Symbol: GJA1
Description: gap junction protein alpha 1
Alias: cx43, gap junction alpha-1 protein, gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43kDa (connexin 43)
Species: dog
Products:     GJA1

Top Publications

  1. Akar F, Spragg D, Tunin R, Kass D, Tomaselli G. Mechanisms underlying conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Res. 2004;95:717-25 pubmed
    ..b>Cx43 expression was reduced by >40% in epicardial and endocardial layers of the LV, but was unchanged in the RV of ..
  2. Strom M, Wan X, Poelzing S, Ficker E, Rosenbaum D. Gap junction heterogeneity as mechanism for electrophysiologically distinct properties across the ventricular wall. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterogeneous expression of the principal ventricular gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is associated with action potential duration (APD) dispersion across the anterior ventricular wall...
  3. Baum J, Long B, Cabo C, Duffy H. Myofibroblasts cause heterogeneous Cx43 reduction and are unlikely to be coupled to myocytes in the healing canine infarct. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H790-800 pubmed publisher
    ..myofibroblasts, which in vitro studies show form heterocellular gap junctions with cardiac myocytes via Connexin43 (Cx43)...
  4. Poelzing S, Rosenbaum D. Altered connexin43 expression produces arrhythmia substrate in heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H1762-70 pubmed
    ..failure is related to intercellular uncoupling from downregulation of cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43)...
  5. Long A, Bomser J, Grzybowski D, Chandler H. All-trans retinoic Acid regulates cx43 expression, gap junction communication and differentiation in primary lens epithelial cells. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:670-9 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment on connexin 43 (Cx43) expression, gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), and cellular differentiation in primary canine lens epithelial cells (LEC). ..
  6. Hesketh G, Shah M, Halperin V, Cooke C, Akar F, Yen T, et al. Ultrastructure and regulation of lateralized connexin43 in the failing heart. Circ Res. 2010;106:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary gap junction protein in the working myocardium, connexin43 (Cx43), exhibits increased localization at the lateral membranes of cardiomyocytes in a variety of heart diseases, ..
  7. Jin C, Martyn K, Kurata W, Warn Cramer B, Lau A. Connexin43 PDZ2 binding domain mutants create functional gap junctions and exhibit altered phosphorylation. Cell Commun Adhes. 2004;11:67-87 pubmed
    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundantly expressed gap junction protein...
  8. Davis L, Kanter H, Beyer E, Saffitz J. Distinct gap junction protein phenotypes in cardiac tissues with disparate conduction properties. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24:1124-32 pubmed
    ..Although most cardiac gap junctions contain connexin40, connexin43 and connexin45, the relative amounts of each of these connexins vary considerably in cardiac tissues with different conduction properties. ..
  9. Akar F, Nass R, Hahn S, Cingolani E, Shah M, Hesketh G, et al. Dynamic changes in conduction velocity and gap junction properties during development of pacing-induced heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1223-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the time course of conduction changes with respect to alterations in connexin 43 (Cx43) properties and mechanical function during the development of HF...

More Information


  1. Li X, Su V, Kurata W, Jin C, Lau A. A novel connexin43-interacting protein, CIP75, which belongs to the UbL-UBA protein family, regulates the turnover of connexin43. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5748-59 pubmed
    The degradation of connexin43 (Cx43) has been reported to involve both lysosomal and proteasomal degradation pathways; however, very little is known about the mechanisms regulating these Cx43 degradation pathways...
  2. Dunn C, Su V, Lau A, Lampe P. Activation of Akt, not connexin 43 protein ubiquitination, regulates gap junction stability. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2600-7 pubmed publisher
    The pore-forming gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43) has a short (1-3 h) half-life in cells in tissue culture and in whole tissues...
  3. G nczi M, Kov cs M, Sepr nyi G, V gh A. The involvement of gap junctions in the delayed phase of the protection induced by cardiac pacing in dogs. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;123:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..in the delayed anti-arrhythmic effect of cardiac pacing, with particular reference to the time-course changes in Cx43 (connexin43) expression both after pacing (4×5 min, at a rate of 240 beats/min) and 24 h later, when the dogs ..
  4. Dunn C, Lampe P. Injury-triggered Akt phosphorylation of Cx43: a ZO-1-driven molecular switch that regulates gap junction size. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) affects gap junction assembly, channel gating and turnover...
  5. Burstein B, Comtois P, Michael G, Nishida K, Villeneuve L, Yeh Y, et al. Changes in connexin expression and the atrial fibrillation substrate in congestive heart failure. Circ Res. 2009;105:1213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..001). CHF did not significantly alter overall atrial connexin (Cx)40 and Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels, but produced Cx43 dephosphorylation, increased Cx40/Cx43 protein expression ..
  6. Torres L, Matera J, Vasconcellos C, Avanzo J, Hernandez Blazquez F, Dagli M. Expression of connexins 26 and 43 in canine hyperplastic and neoplastic mammary glands. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:633-41 pubmed
  7. Rüttinger C, Bergmann M, Fink L, Pesch S, Seitz K, Trautmann A, et al. Expression of connexin 43 in normal canine testes and canine testicular tumors. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:537-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cx43 is known to play a role in the differentiation and proliferation of these cell types...
  8. Meraviglia V, Azzimato V, Colussi C, Florio M, Binda A, Panariti A, et al. Acetylation mediates Cx43 reduction caused by electrical stimulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;87:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Field stimulation of HL-1 cardiomyocytes at 0.5 Hz for 24 h significantly reduced connexin43 (Cx43) expression and cell-cell communication...
  9. Ryu K, Li L, Khrestian C, Matsumoto N, Sahadevan J, Ruehr M, et al. Effects of sterile pericarditis on connexins 40 and 43 in the atria: correlation with abnormal conduction and atrial arrhythmias. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1231-41 pubmed
    ..Tissues from RA sites were subjected to immunostaining and immunoblotting to assess connexin (Cx) 40 and Cx43 distribution and expression...
  10. Willingham Rocky L, Golding M, Wright J, Kraemer D, Westhusin M, Burghardt R. Cloning of GJA1 (connexin43) and its expression in canine ovarian follicles throughout the estrous cycle. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:66-71 pubmed
    b>GJA1 (also known as connexin43 or Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in mammalian tissues including the ovary...
  11. Zhong J, Zhang W, Gao H, Li Y, Zhong M, Li D, et al. Changes in connexin 43, metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase during tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in dogs. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007;9:23-9 pubmed
    ..Ultrastructural changes in left ventricular tissue were observed by transmission electron microscope. Connexin 43 (Cx43) levels in the left ventricular myocardium were measured by confocal laser microscopy...
  12. Wang J, Li J, Liu H, Yi S, Su G, Zhang Y, et al. Dynamic alterations of connexin43, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during ventricular fibrillation in canine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;391:259-66 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic alterations of cardiac connexin 43 (Cx43), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the setting of different ventricular fibrillation (..
  13. Poelzing S, Akar F, Baron E, Rosenbaum D. Heterogeneous connexin43 expression produces electrophysiological heterogeneities across ventricular wall. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H2001-9 pubmed
    ..Because connexin43 (Cx43) is the principal ventricular gap junction protein, we hypothesized that transmural EP heterogeneities are in part ..