Gene Symbol: TLR4
Description: toll like receptor 4
Alias: toll-like receptor 4, toll-like receptor 4 immunity-related protein
Species: cow
Products:     TLR4

Top Publications

  1. Sharma B, Leyva I, Schenkel F, Karrow N. Association of toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms with somatic cell score and lactation persistency in Holstein bulls. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:3626-35 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern recognition receptor that recognizes endotoxins associated with gram-negative bacterial ..
  2. Panigrahi M, Sharma A, Bhushan B. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle. Anim Biotechnol. 2014;25:188-99 pubmed publisher
    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to ..
  3. Herath S, Fischer D, Werling D, Williams E, Lilly S, Dobson H, et al. Expression and function of Toll-like receptor 4 in the endometrial cells of the uterus. Endocrinology. 2006;147:562-70 pubmed
    ..Immune cells detect E. coli by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) binding its pathogenic ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), although signaling requires accessory molecules such as ..
  4. White S, Kata S, Womack J. Comparative fine maps of bovine toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 2 regions. Mamm Genome. 2003;14:149-55 pubmed
    ..We have used a 5000-rad, whole-genome radiation hybrid panel to map Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to the distal end of bovine Chromosome (Chr) 8, and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to the proximal end of bovine Chr ..
  5. Menzies M, Ingham A. Identification and expression of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in selected bovine and ovine tissues. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;109:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In bovine skin TLRs 2 and 7 were most abundant. In all tissues tested TLR4 expression was at the lower limit of detection.
  6. Arbour N, Lorenz E, Schutte B, Zabner J, Kline J, Jones M, et al. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nat Genet. 2000;25:187-91 pubmed
    ..To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness in mice,..
  7. Wassef A, Janardhan K, Pearce J, Singh B. Toll-like receptor 4 in normal and inflamed lungs and other organs of pig, dog and cattle. Histol Histopathol. 2004;19:1201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has recently been recognized as a major receptor for cellular interactions with lipopolysaccharides derived from ..
  8. Swangchan Uthai T, Lavender C, Cheng Z, Fouladi Nashta A, Wathes D. Time course of defense mechanisms in bovine endometrium in response to lipopolysaccharide. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:135 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 17 candidate genes tested initially, LPS treatment for 24 h up-regulated mRNA expression of TLR4 signaling (TLR4, CD14), cytokines (IL1B, TNF), chemokines (IL8, CXCL5), antimicrobial peptides (LAP, S100A8, S100A9,..
  9. Rajan N, Bloom O, Maidhof R, Stetson N, Sherry B, Levine M, et al. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and stimulation in a model of intervertebral disc inflammation and degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    We measured the expression and responses of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in the intervertebral disc (IVD) in vitro and in vivo...

More Information


  1. Goldammer T, Zerbe H, Molenaar A, Schuberth H, Brunner R, Kata S, et al. Mastitis increases mammary mRNA abundance of beta-defensin 5, toll-like-receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 but not TLR9 in cattle. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:174-85 pubmed
    ..was used to establish real-time PCR quantification assays to measure the mRNA abundances of TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 together with those of beta-defensin 5 (BNBD5), an early bactericidal effector molecule of the innate system, in ..
  2. Novák K, Pikousová J, Czerneková V, Mátlová V. Diversity of the TLR4 Immunity Receptor in Czech Native Cattle Breeds Revealed Using the Pacific Biosciences Sequencing Platform. Anim Biotechnol. 2017;28:228-236 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening to determine the diversity of the Toll-like receptor gene TLR4 was conducted in two conserved cattle breeds: Czech Red and Czech Red Pied...
  3. Chen Y, Oba M, Guan L. Variation of bacterial communities and expression of Toll-like receptor genes in the rumen of steers differing in susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Vet Microbiol. 2012;159:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings enhance our understanding about the ruminal microbial ecology and host gene expression changes that may be useful in the prevention of ruminal acidosis...
  4. Swain D, Kushwah M, Kaur M, Patbandha T, Mohanty A, Dang A. Formation of NET, phagocytic activity, surface architecture, apoptosis and expression of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) in neutrophils of mastitic cows. Vet Res Commun. 2014;38:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The study indicated a positive correlation between lower neutrophil apoptosis and higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4 with the formation of NETs and change in surface architecture...
  5. Ruiz Larra aga O, Manzano C, Iriondo M, Garrido J, Molina E, Vazquez P, et al. Genetic variation of toll-like receptor genes and infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:3635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In cattle, 3 members of the TLR family, TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4, are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp...
  6. White S, Taylor K, Abbey C, Gill C, Womack J. Haplotype variation in bovine Toll-like receptor 4 and computational prediction of a positively selected ligand-binding domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10364-9 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a cell-surface receptor that activates innate and adaptive immune responses...
  7. Yang Z, Fu Y, Gong P, Zheng J, Liu L, Yu Y, et al. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. Microb Pathog. 2015;85:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C...
  8. Bromfield J, Sheldon I. Lipopolysaccharide initiates inflammation in bovine granulosa cells via the TLR4 pathway and perturbs oocyte meiotic progression in vitro. Endocrinology. 2011;152:5029-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting TLR4 with small interfering RNA attenuated granulosa cell accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS...
  9. Wang X, Xu S, Gao X, Ren H, Chen J. Genetic polymorphism of TLR4 gene and correlation with mastitis in cattle. J Genet Genomics. 2007;34:406-12 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses...
  10. Behl J, Sharma A, Kataria R, Verma N, Kimothi S, Bhatia A, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes: SNPs distribution analysis in Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Anim Biotechnol. 2014;25:250-65 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region...
  11. Kataria R, Tait R, Kumar D, Ortega M, Rodiguez J, Reecy J. Association of toll-like receptor four single nucleotide polymorphisms with incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) in cattle. Immunogenetics. 2011;63:115-9 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor protein that binds pathogen ligands, which are mainly associated with Gram-negative bacteria...
  12. Moyes K, Drackley J, Morin D, Loor J. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis. Funct Integr Genomics. 2010;10:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulated genes by NEB were ALOX5AP, CPNE3, IL1R2, IL6, TLR2, TLR4, and THY1, and downregulated genes were HLA-DRA, HLA-A, IRAK1, SOD1, and TNF...
  13. Pinedo P, Buergelt C, Donovan G, Melendez P, Morel L, Wu R, et al. Candidate gene polymorphisms (BoIFNG, TLR4, SLC11A1) as risk factors for paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2009;91:189-96 pubmed publisher three candidate genes related to the immune function; interferon gamma (BoIFNG), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and SLC11A1 genes and to test their role as potential risk factors for paratuberculosis infection in cattle...
  14. Burzyn D, Rassa J, Kim D, Nepomnaschy I, Ross S, Piazzon I. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by a retrovirus. J Virol. 2004;78:576-84 pubmed
    ..It has recently been shown that MMTV activates B cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a molecule involved in innate immune responses...
  15. Sharma B, Mount J, Karrow N. Functional characterization of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' UTR region of the bovine toll-like receptor 4 gene. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;132:331-6 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the key receptor for the LPS component of Gram-negative bacteria. We have identified a SNP within the 5' UTR region of the bovine TLR4 gene at position 226 (c...
  16. Price J, Bromfield J, Sheldon I. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from ovarian dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by bacteria, leading to activation ..
  17. Dabbagh K, Dahl M, Stepick Biek P, Lewis D. Toll-like receptor 4 is required for optimal development of Th2 immune responses: role of dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2002;168:4524-30 pubmed
    ..maturation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
  18. Werling D, Piercy J, Coffey T. Expression of TOLL-like receptors (TLR) by bovine antigen-presenting cells-potential role in pathogen discrimination?. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:2-11 pubmed
  19. Schaut R, McGill J, Neill J, Ridpath J, Sacco R. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression. Virus Res. 2015;208:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data and those of others, suggest that certain Flaviviridae may have evolved strategies for subverting receptor signaling pathways involving MyD88. ..
  20. Cronin J, Kanamarlapudi V, Thornton C, Sheldon I. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 licenses Toll-like receptor 4-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production via IL-6 receptor-positive feedback in endometrial cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2016;9:1125-36 pubmed publisher LPS, STAT3 returned to a tyrosine phosphorylated state, indicating cross-talk between the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the IL6R/STAT3 signaling pathways...
  21. Wang J, Warris A, Ellingsen E, Jørgensen P, Flo T, Espevik T, et al. Involvement of CD14 and toll-like receptors in activation of human monocytes by Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2402-6 pubmed
    ..of human monocytes with different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 microg/ml) of monoclonal antibody (MAb) HTA125 (anti-TLR4) or MAb 18D11 (anti-CD14) for 30 min inhibited the release of TNF-alpha induced by hyphal fragments in a dose-..
  22. Fu Y, Liu B, Feng X, Liu Z, Liang D, Li F, et al. Lipopolysaccharide increases Toll-like receptor 4 and downstream Toll-like receptor signaling molecules expression in bovine endometrial epithelial cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;151:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria and initiates innate immune responses...
  23. Opsal M, Lien S, Brenna Hansen S, Olsen H, Vage D. Association analysis of the constructed linkage maps covering TLR2 and TLR4 with clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cattle. J Anim Breed Genet. 2008;125:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have identified TLR2 and TLR4 as potential candidate genes for disease resistance...
  24. Wang X, Xu S, Ma T, Gao X, Ren H, Chen J. [Genetic variation in the 5' flanking region of bovine TLR4 gene and correlation with mastitis]. Yi Chuan. 2006;28:1520-4 pubmed
    ..In this experiment, a 477 bp segment of the 5'-flanking region of TLR4 gene of Chinese Holstein, Sanhe cattle and Chinese simmental was amplified by polymerase chain reaction...
  25. White S, Halbert N, Taylor K, Derr J, Womack J. TLR4 variation in Yellowstone bison. Anim Genet. 2005;36:533-4 pubmed
  26. Yang W, Zerbe H, Petzl W, Brunner R, Günther J, Draing C, et al. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 properly transduce signals from Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli, but S. aureus fails to both activate NF-kappaB in mammary epithelial cells and to quickly induce TNFalpha and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) expression in the udder. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1385-97 pubmed
    ..We examined here, if inadequate activation of the bovine TLR2 and TLR4 pathogen receptors by ligands derived from S...
  27. El Shafaey E, Ateya A, Ramadan H, Saleh R, Elseady Y, Abo El Fadl E, et al. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 Genes as Candidates for Digital Dermatitis Resistance/Susceptibility in Holstein Cattle. Anim Biotechnol. 2017;28:131-137 pubmed publisher
    Relatedness between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 genes and digital dermatitis resistance/susceptibility was investigated in seventy Holstein dairy cows...
  28. Zhou H, Cheng L, Gong H, Byun S, Edwards G, Hickford J. Variation in the Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) gene affects milk traits in dairy cows. J Dairy Res. 2017;84:426-429 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to investigate a region of the bovine TLR4 gene (TLR4) in pasture-fed New Zealand (NZ) Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) cross dairy cows and to ..
  29. McGuire K, Jones M, Werling D, Williams J, Glass E, Jann O. Radiation hybrid mapping of all 10 characterized bovine Toll-like receptors. Anim Genet. 2006;37:47-50 pubmed
    ..TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 map to BTA17, BTA27, BTA8, BTA16 and BTA22 respectively...
  30. Sharma B, Abo Ismail M, Schenkel F, You Q, Verschoor C, Pant S, et al. Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection status in Canadian Holsteins. Anim Genet. 2015;46:560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) was selected as a potential candidate gene because of its role in innate immunity and its involvement in MAP ..
  31. Shimizu T, Kawasaki Y, Aoki Y, Magata F, Kawashima C, Miyamoto A. Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR 4) on Reproductive Performance and Immune Function in Dairy Cows. Biochem Genet. 2017;55:212-222 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reproductive performances [the number of artificial insemination (AI) application and days open], and immune cell ..
  32. Supajatura V, Ushio H, Nakao A, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H. Protective roles of mast cells against enterobacterial infection are mediated by Toll-like receptor 4. J Immunol. 2001;167:2250-6 pubmed
    ..Using BMMCs from the genetically TLR4-mutated strain C3H/HeJ, we demonstrated that functional TLR4 was required for a full responsiveness of BMMCs to ..
  33. Ibeagha Awemu E, Lee J, Ibeagha A, Bannerman D, Paape M, Zhao X. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces increased expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and downstream TLR signaling molecules in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Vet Res. 2008;39:11 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one such receptor that binds and is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer envelope of ..
  34. Martins T, Muniz C, Andrade V, Paixão T, Santos R, Borges Ã. Changes in endometrial transcription of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 during the first-week postpartum in dairy cows with retained placenta. Theriogenology. 2016;85:1282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription levels of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 in Holstein cows with retained placenta significantly decreased (P < 0...
  35. Takami M, Kim N, Rho J, Choi Y. Stimulation by toll-like receptors inhibits osteoclast differentiation. J Immunol. 2002;169:1516-23 pubmed
    ..This process favors immune responses and may be critical to prevent pathogenic effects of microbial invasion on bone. ..