Gene Symbol: PTGS2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, COX-2, PGH synthase 2, PGHS-2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
Species: cow
Products:     PTGS2

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Antaya M, Boerboom D, Lussier J, Silversides D, Sirois J. The delayed activation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 promoter in bovine granulosa cells is associated with down-regulation of truncated upstream stimulatory factor-2. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35037-45 pubmed
  2. Liu J, Antaya M, Goff A, Boerboom D, Silversides D, Lussier J, et al. Molecular characterization of bovine prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 and regulation in uterine stromal cells. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:983-91 pubmed
  3. Arosh J, Parent J, Chapdelaine P, Sirois J, Fortier M. Expression of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 and prostaglandin E synthase in bovine endometrial tissue during the estrous cycle. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:161-9 pubmed
  4. Derecka K, Sheldrick E, Wathes D, Abayasekara D, Flint A. A PPAR-independent pathway to PUFA-induced COX-2 expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a pathway to the induction of COX-2 by PUFAs requiring NF-kappaB but not PPAR or PKC. ..
  5. Krishnaswamy N, Lacroix Pepin N, Chapdelaine P, Taniguchi H, Kauffenstein G, Chakravarti A, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor is an obligatory intermediate for oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin F2 alpha production in bovine endometrial epithelial cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..EGFR), c-Src, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) on OT-induced PGF(2 alpha) production in association with cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation...
  6. Emond V, Maclaren L, Kimmins S, Arosh J, Fortier M, Lambert R. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the endometrial epithelium of the cow is up-regulated during early pregnancy and in response to intrauterine infusions of interferon-tau. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:54-64 pubmed
    ..The current report supports the view that the conceptus, through its secretion of IFN-tau, stimulates maternal epithelial expression of COX-2 and GM-CSF during the peri-attachment period in the cow. ..
  7. Lau A, Kollara A, St John E, Tone A, Virtanen C, Greenblatt E, et al. Altered expression of inflammation-associated genes in oviductal cells following follicular fluid exposure: implications for ovarian carcinogenesis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014;239:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to follicular fluid transiently increased the transcript levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), and decreased the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 3 (..
  8. Sayasith K, Lussier J, Sirois J. Role of upstream stimulatory factor phosphorylation in the regulation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 promoter in granulosa cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28885-93 pubmed
  9. Atikuzzaman M, Koo O, Kang J, Kwon D, Park S, Kim S, et al. The 9-cis retinoic acid signaling pathway and its regulation of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 during in vitro maturation of pig cumulus cell-oocyte complexes and effects on parthenogenetic embryo production. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that 9-cis retinoic acid can exert its beneficial effect on parthenogenetic embryo production in pigs by multidimensional pathways affecting oocyte maturation. ..

More Information


  1. Wehbrink D, Hassig M, Ritter N, Zerbe H, Bleul U, Boos A. Immunohistochemical demonstration of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin receptors EP2 and FP expression in the bovine intercaruncular uterine wall around term. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;106:241-54 pubmed
    ..EP2 remains rather unchanged during the peripartal period. COX-2 and FP thus contribute via changes in amount and distribution to mechanisms associated with parturition. ..
  2. Janowski T, Barański W, Łukasik K, Skarzynski D, Zduńczyk S, Malinowska K. Endometrial mRNA expression of prostaglandin synthase enzymes PTGS 2, PTGFS and mPTGES 1 in repeat-breeding cows with cytologically determined endometritis. Acta Vet Hung. 2017;65:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our study confirms that increased endometrial expression of the PTGS 2 gene is involved in the inflammatory response in repeat breeders. ..
  3. Tsai S, Wiltbank M, Bodensteiner K. Distinct mechanisms regulate induction of messenger ribonucleic acid for prostaglandin (PG) G/H synthase-2, PGE (EP3) receptor, and PGF2 alpha receptor in bovine preovulatory follicles. Endocrinology. 1996;137:3348-55 pubmed
    ..Temporal expression of FP receptor mRNA is not consistent with the involvement of FP receptor in ovulation and suggests that PKA stimulates PGHS-2 and FP receptor mRNA by distinct mechanisms. ..
  4. Isayama K, Chen H, Yamauchi N, Hattori M. REV-ERB? inhibits the PTGS2 expression in bovine uterus endometrium stromal and epithelial cells exposed to ovarian steroids. J Reprod Dev. 2014;60:362-70 pubmed
    ..F2? (PGF2?) from bovine uterine stromal (USCs) and epithelial cells (UECs) by modulating the expression of PTGS2. The circadian oscillation of clock genes in the cells was weak compared with that reported in rodents, but the ..
  5. Hidalgo M, Loncomán C, Hidalgo A, Andrade V, Carretta M, Burgos R. Decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and lactoferrin release in blood neutrophils of heifers during the calving period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2014;160:139-44 pubmed publisher
  6. Nuttinck F, Gall L, Ruffini S, Laffont L, Clément L, Reinaud P, et al. PTGS2-related PGE2 affects oocyte MAPK phosphorylation and meiosis progression in cattle: late effects on early embryonic development. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1248-57 pubmed publisher
    During the periovulatory period, the induction of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PTGS2) expression in cumulus cells and associated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production are implicated in the terminal differentiation of the cumulus-oocyte ..
  7. Raveenthiran S, Chowdhury T. Dynamic compression inhibits fibronectin fragment induced iNOS and COX-2 expression in chondrocyte/agarose constructs. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2009;8:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of mechanical and pharmacological interventions makes this study a powerful tool to examine further the interactions of biomechanics and cell signalling in osteoarthritis. ..
  8. Tanikawa M, Lee H, Watanabe K, Majewska M, Skarzynski D, Park S, et al. Regulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by interleukin-1 in cultured bovine endometrial cells. J Endocrinol. 2008;199:425-34 pubmed publisher
  9. Herzog K, Str ve K, Kastelic J, Piechotta M, Ulbrich S, Pfarrer C, et al. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration transiently suppresses luteal structure and function in diestrous cows. Reproduction. 2012;144:467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, LPS treatment of diestrus cows transiently suppressed both the structure and function of the CL...
  10. Sheldrick E, Derecka K, Marshall E, Chin E, Hodges L, Wathes D, et al. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and the control of levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 by arachidonic acid in the bovine uterus. Biochem J. 2007;406:175-83 pubmed
    Arachidonic acid is a potential paracrine agent released by the uterine endometrial epithelium to induce PTGS2 [PG (prostaglandin)-endoperoxide synthase 2] in the stroma...
  11. Iwanaga K, Murata T, Hori M, Ozaki H. Purinergic P2Y1 receptor signaling mediates wound stimuli-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;702:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We also revealed that inhibitors of p38 MAPK and PKC inhibited ATP?S-induced COX-2 mRNA expression. Collectively, purinergic P2Y1 receptor signaling mediates wound-induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK and PKC pathways in ISMFs. ..
  12. Guzeloglu A, Subramaniam P, Michel F, Thatcher W. Interferon-tau induces degradation of prostaglandin H synthase-2 messenger RNA in bovine endometrial cells through a transcription-dependent mechanism. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:170-6 pubmed
    ..However, the consequences of an IFN-tau-induced activation of p38 MAPK warrant further investigation, because inhibition of p38 MAPK caused a degradation of PGHS-2 mRNA. ..
  13. Sayasith K, Bouchard N, Sawadogo M, Lussier J, Sirois J. Molecular characterization and role of bovine upstream stimulatory factor 1 and 2 in the regulation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 promoter in granulosa cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:6327-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study presents for the first time direct evidence for a role of USF proteins in the regulation of the PGHS-2 promoter in preovulatory granulosa cells. ..
  14. Tsai S, Wiltbank M. Prostaglandin F2alpha regulates distinct physiological changes in early and mid-cycle bovine corpora lutea. Biol Reprod. 1998;58:346-52 pubmed
    ..The lack of PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis in the early CL may be due to specific changes in gene expression, especially PGHS-2, that may prevent intraluteal PGF2alpha production and possibly other key luteolytic processes. ..
  15. Asselin E, Drolet P, Fortier M. Cellular mechanisms involved during oxytocin-induced prostaglandin F2alpha production in endometrial epithelial cells in vitro: role of cyclooxygenase-2. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4798-805 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that COX-2 is involved in the mechanism by which OT regulates PGF2alpha production in the endometrium. ..