Gene Symbol: MMP9
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 9
Alias: matrix metalloproteinase-9, 92 kDa gelatinase, 92 kDa type IV collagenase, GELB, MMP-9, gelatinase B, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase)
Species: cow
Products:     MMP9

Top Publications

  1. Imai K, Khandoker M, Yonai M, Takahashi T, Sato T, Ito A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 activities in bovine follicular fluid of different-sized follicles: relationship to intra-follicular inhibin and steroid concentrations. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2003;24:171-83 pubmed
  2. Hashizume K, Takahashi T, Shimizu M, Todoroki J, Shimada A, Hirata M, et al. Matrix-metalloproteinases-2 and -9 production in bovine endometrial cell culture. J Reprod Dev. 2003;49:45-53 pubmed
    ..Both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta strongly stimulated the production of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas IGFs had no effect. Based on these findings, it appears that conceptus has the capacity to inhibit MMP activity. ..
  3. Francoz D, Desrochers A, Simard N, Saint Pierre Y, Fecteau G, Latouche J, et al. Relative expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in synovial fluid from healthy calves and calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1022-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that relative expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 increased in synovial fluid from calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis, with relative expression remaining high for several days after infection. ..
  4. Baylis H, Megson A, Hall R. Infection with Theileria annulata induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transcription factor AP-1 in bovine leucocytes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1995;69:211-22 pubmed
    ..The predicted protein sequence of B1 is 81% identical to human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), demonstrating that it is the bovine homologue of this enzyme...
  5. Balcerzak D, Querengesser L, Dixon W, Baracos V. Coordinate expression of matrix-degrading proteinases and their activators and inhibitors in bovine skeletal muscle. J Anim Sci. 2001;79:94-107 pubmed
  6. van Engelen E, Breeveld Dwarkasing V, Taverne M, Everts M, van der Weijden G, Rutten V. MMP-2 expression precedes the final ripening process of the bovine cervix. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1669-77 pubmed publisher
  7. Kizaki K, Ushizawa K, Takahashi T, Yamada O, Todoroki J, Sato T, et al. Gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) expression profiles during gestation in the bovine endometrium. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:66 pubmed publisher
    ..In cows, as is the case in humans and rodents, gelatinases participate in endometrial remodeling, and their activities depend on the balance of activators and inhibitors; i.e., TIMP, MT-MMP, EMMPRIN, MMP-2, MMP-9, and so on. ..
  8. Dilly M, Hambruch N, Haeger J, Pfarrer C. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces motility and upregulates MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in bovine trophoblast cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, EGF-mediated effects stimulate migration and proliferation of bovine trophoblast cells and may be involved in bovine placental tissue remodeling and postpartum release of fetal membranes. ..
  9. Mishra M, Flaga J, Kowluru R. Molecular Mechanism of Transcriptional Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Diabetic Retinopathy. J Cell Physiol. 2016;231:1709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1709-1718, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..

More Information


  1. Hinds C, Niehaus A, Premanandan C, Rajala Schultz P, Rings D, Lakritz J. Characterization of the contributions of Hp-MMP 9 to the serum acute phase protein response of lipopolysaccharide challenged calves. BMC Vet Res. 2014;10:261 pubmed publisher
    ..of the study was to define the time course of covalent complexes of neutrophil, haptoglobin (Hp) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) in serum after intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to traditional markers...
  2. Linsuwanont B, Takagi Y, Ohya K, Shimokawa H. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA and protein during deciduous tooth resorption in bovine odontoclasts. Bone. 2002;31:472-8 pubmed
    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, or gelatinase B) is an extracellular proteinase that is highly expressed in osteoclasts and has been postulated to play an important role in their resorptive activity...
  3. Takagi M, Yamamoto D, Ohtani M, Miyamoto A. Quantitative analysis of messenger RNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor-2 of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), and steroidogenic enzymes in bovine placentomes during gestation and postpartum. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:801-7 pubmed
  4. Roy S, Samanta K, Chakraborti T, Chowdhury A, Chakraborti S. Role of TGF-?1 and TNF-? in IL-1? mediated activation of proMMP-9 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: involvement of an aprotinin sensitive protease. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;513:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-1? induced stimulation of the two progelatinases occurs via different mechanisms. ..
  5. Hirata M, Sato T, Tsumagari M, Shimada A, Nakano H, Hashizume K, et al. Differential regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases by cytokines and growth factors in bovine endometrial stromal cells and trophoblast cell line BT-1 in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1276-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as in humans and rodents, MMPs and TIMPs may contribute to the control of degradation and reconstitution of extracellular matrix in bovine endometrium during embryonic implantation and early placentation. ..
  6. Wang X, Wang H, Aodon geril -, Shu Y, Momotani Y, Nagata R, et al. Decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in paratuberculosis-infected cattle in the ELISA-negative subclinical stage. Anim Biotechnol. 2011;22:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the MMP-9 may play an important role in the development of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disease. ..
  7. Santos J, Tewari S, Lin J, Kowluru R. Interrelationship between activation of matrix metalloproteinases and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;438:760-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, modulation of these gelatinase MMPs by pharmacological agents during the early stages of diabetes could provide a strategy to inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy. ..