LTF

Summary

Gene Symbol: LTF
Description: lactotransferrin
Alias: lactotransferrin, lactoferrin
Species: cow
Products:     LTF

Top Publications

  1. Goodman R, Schanbacher F. Bovine lactoferrin mRNA: sequence, analysis, and expression in the mammary gland. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;180:75-84 pubmed
    The mRNA sequence for bovine lactoferrin expressed in the mammary gland was determined by sequencing three over lapping cDNA clones and by direct sequencing of the mRNA...
  2. Ohashi A, Murata E, Yamamoto K, Majima E, Sano E, Le Q, et al. New functions of lactoferrin and beta-casein in mammalian milk as cysteine protease inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:98-103 pubmed
    We found new inhibitory function of lactoferrin and beta-casein in milk against cysteine proteases using reverse zymography...
  3. Puddu P, Carollo M, Belardelli F, Valenti P, Gessani S. Role of endogenous interferon and LPS in the immunomodulatory effects of bovine lactoferrin in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:347-53 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) plays an important role in host defense against infection and excessive inflammation...
  4. Bellamy W, Takase M, Yamauchi K, Wakabayashi H, Kawase K, Tomita M. Identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1121:130-6 pubmed
    We report the existence of a previously unknown antimicrobial domain near the N-terminus of lactoferrin in a region distinct from its iron-binding sites...
  5. Fischer R, Debbabi H, Dubarry M, Boyaka P, Tome D. Regulation of physiological and pathological Th1 and Th2 responses by lactoferrin. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;84:303-11 pubmed
    ..Finally, Lf may provide protection against Th1- or Th2-induced diseases, such as autoimmune or allergic diseases, through correction of the Th1/Th2 imbalance. ..
  6. Kim J, Ellman M, Yan D, An H, Kc R, Li X, et al. Lactoferricin mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects via inhibition of IL-1 and LPS activity in the intervertebral disc. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1884-96 pubmed publisher
  7. Cornish J, Callon K, Naot D, Palmano K, Banovic T, Bava U, et al. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4366-74 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in epithelial secretions, such as milk, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils...
  8. Nozaki A, Ikeda M, Naganuma A, Nakamura T, Inudoh M, Tanaka K, et al. Identification of a lactoferrin-derived peptide possessing binding activity to hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results led us to consider the development of an effective anti-HCV peptide. This is the first identification of a natural protein-derived peptide that specifically binds to HCV E2 protein and prevents HCV infection...
  9. Yi M, Kaneko S, Yu D, Murakami S. Hepatitis C virus envelope proteins bind lactoferrin. J Virol. 1997;71:5997-6002 pubmed
    ..Here we report that human as well as bovine lactoferrin, a multifunctional immunomodulator, binds two HCV envelope proteins...
  10. Moore S, Anderson B, Groom C, Haridas M, Baker E. Three-dimensional structure of diferric bovine lactoferrin at 2.8 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1997;274:222-36 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of diferric bovine lactoferrin (bLf) has been determined by X-ray crystallography in order to investigate the factors that influence iron binding and release by transferrins...

Detail Information

Publications78

  1. Goodman R, Schanbacher F. Bovine lactoferrin mRNA: sequence, analysis, and expression in the mammary gland. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;180:75-84 pubmed
    The mRNA sequence for bovine lactoferrin expressed in the mammary gland was determined by sequencing three over lapping cDNA clones and by direct sequencing of the mRNA...
  2. Ohashi A, Murata E, Yamamoto K, Majima E, Sano E, Le Q, et al. New functions of lactoferrin and beta-casein in mammalian milk as cysteine protease inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:98-103 pubmed
    We found new inhibitory function of lactoferrin and beta-casein in milk against cysteine proteases using reverse zymography...
  3. Puddu P, Carollo M, Belardelli F, Valenti P, Gessani S. Role of endogenous interferon and LPS in the immunomodulatory effects of bovine lactoferrin in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:347-53 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) plays an important role in host defense against infection and excessive inflammation...
  4. Bellamy W, Takase M, Yamauchi K, Wakabayashi H, Kawase K, Tomita M. Identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1121:130-6 pubmed
    We report the existence of a previously unknown antimicrobial domain near the N-terminus of lactoferrin in a region distinct from its iron-binding sites...
  5. Fischer R, Debbabi H, Dubarry M, Boyaka P, Tome D. Regulation of physiological and pathological Th1 and Th2 responses by lactoferrin. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;84:303-11 pubmed
    ..Finally, Lf may provide protection against Th1- or Th2-induced diseases, such as autoimmune or allergic diseases, through correction of the Th1/Th2 imbalance. ..
  6. Kim J, Ellman M, Yan D, An H, Kc R, Li X, et al. Lactoferricin mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects via inhibition of IL-1 and LPS activity in the intervertebral disc. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1884-96 pubmed publisher
  7. Cornish J, Callon K, Naot D, Palmano K, Banovic T, Bava U, et al. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4366-74 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in epithelial secretions, such as milk, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils...
  8. Nozaki A, Ikeda M, Naganuma A, Nakamura T, Inudoh M, Tanaka K, et al. Identification of a lactoferrin-derived peptide possessing binding activity to hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results led us to consider the development of an effective anti-HCV peptide. This is the first identification of a natural protein-derived peptide that specifically binds to HCV E2 protein and prevents HCV infection...
  9. Yi M, Kaneko S, Yu D, Murakami S. Hepatitis C virus envelope proteins bind lactoferrin. J Virol. 1997;71:5997-6002 pubmed
    ..Here we report that human as well as bovine lactoferrin, a multifunctional immunomodulator, binds two HCV envelope proteins...
  10. Moore S, Anderson B, Groom C, Haridas M, Baker E. Three-dimensional structure of diferric bovine lactoferrin at 2.8 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1997;274:222-36 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of diferric bovine lactoferrin (bLf) has been determined by X-ray crystallography in order to investigate the factors that influence iron binding and release by transferrins...
  11. Saito S, Takayama Y, Mizumachi K, Suzuki C. Lactoferrin promotes hyaluronan synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. Biotechnol Lett. 2011;33:33-9 pubmed publisher
    Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) enhanced production of hyaluronan in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The elevation of hyaluronan was accompanied by elevation of HAS2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) mRNA transcription and HAS2 protein expression...
  12. Puddu P, Latorre D, Carollo M, Catizone A, Ricci G, Valenti P, et al. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22504 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF), a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation...
  13. Buccigrossi V, De Marco G, Bruzzese E, Ombrato L, Bracale I, Polito G, et al. Lactoferrin induces concentration-dependent functional modulation of intestinal proliferation and differentiation. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:410-4 pubmed
    Human milk stimulates intestinal development through the effects of various moieties. Lactoferrin (LF) is a glycoprotein of human milk whose concentration is highest in colostrum decreasing in mature milk...
  14. Zimecki M, Kocieba M, Chodaczek G, Houszka M, Kruzel M. Lactoferrin ameliorates symptoms of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;182:160-6 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein present in secretory fluids of mammals and circulating neutrophils. Beside anti-inflammatory properties, LF was found to inhibit some autoimmune disorders...
  15. Arnould V, Soyeurt H, Gengler N, Colinet F, Georges M, Bertozzi C, et al. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:2151-8 pubmed publisher
    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions...
  16. Oho T, Bikker F, Nieuw Amerongen A, Groenink J. A peptide domain of bovine milk lactoferrin inhibits the interaction between streptococcal surface protein antigen and a salivary agglutinin peptide domain. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6181-4 pubmed
    ..responsible for its interaction with cell surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans or bovine lactoferrin was found in the same peptide, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain peptide 2 (SRCRP2)...
  17. Murata M, Satoh T, Wakabayashi H, Yamauchi K, Abe F, Nomura Y. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced skin photodamage in hairless mice. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:651-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is recognized as a host defensive glycoprotein, especially for newborn infants...
  18. Jabeen T, Sharma S, Singh N, Bhushan A, Singh T. Structure of the zinc-saturated C-terminal lobe of bovine lactoferrin at 2.0 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005;61:1107-15 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the zinc-saturated C-terminal lobe of bovine lactoferrin has been determined at 2.0 A resolution using crystals stabilized at pH 3.8...
  19. Zemann N, Klein P, Wetzel E, Huettinger F, Huettinger M. Lactoferrin induces growth arrest and nuclear accumulation of Smad-2 in HeLa cells. Biochimie. 2010;92:880-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional glycoprotein. Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and the resulting therapeutical potential, lactoferrin is at present focus of a variety of research areas...
  20. Yan D, Kc R, Chen D, Xiao G, Im H. Bovine lactoferricin-induced anti-inflammation is, in part, via up-regulation of interleukin-11 by secondary activation of STAT3 in human articular cartilage. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:31655-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest a two-step mechanism, whereby LfcinB induces TIMP-1 through an IL-11-dependent pathway involving transcription factor AP-1 and STAT3. ..
  21. Persson B, Lund M, Forsman J, Chatterton D, Akesson T. Molecular evidence of stereo-specific lactoferrin dimers in solution. Biophys Chem. 2010;151:187-9 pubmed publisher
    Gathering experimental evidence suggests that bovine as well as human lactoferrin self-associate in aqueous solution. Still, a molecular level explanation is unavailable...
  22. Inubushi T, Kawazoe A, Miyauchi M, Kudo Y, Ao M, Ishikado A, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on lipopolysaccharide-mediated osteoclastogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23527-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is an important modulator of the immune response and inflammation. It has also been implicated in the regulation of bone tissue...
  23. Sharma S, Jasti J, Kumar J, Mohanty A, Singh T. Crystal structure of a proteolytically generated functional monoferric C-lobe of bovine lactoferrin at 1.9A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2003;331:485-96 pubmed
    This is the first crystal structure of a proteolytically generated functional C-lobe of lactoferrin. The purified samples of iron-saturated C-lobe were crystallized in 0.1 M Mes buffer (pH 6...
  24. Mir R, Singh N, Vikram G, Kumar R, Sinha M, Bhushan A, et al. The structural basis for the prevention of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal tract damage by the C-lobe of bovine colostrum lactoferrin. Biophys J. 2009;97:3178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the addition of C-terminal half of bovine lactoferrin (C-lobe) reversed the NSAID-induced injuries to the extent of 47-70% whereas the coadministration of C-lobe ..
  25. Mela I, Aumaitre E, Williamson A, Yakubov G. Charge reversal by salt-induced aggregation in aqueous lactoferrin solutions. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;78:53-60 pubmed publisher
    We have observed salt-induced aggregation in lactoferrin solutions using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Aggregates start to form once the ionic strength exceeds 10 mM, and are of opposite charge to their monomer building blocks...
  26. Wen P, Guo H, Zhang H, Gan B, Ding Q, Ren F. Effect of glucose on the lactoferrin's conformation and its effect on MC 3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Protein J. 2012;31:300-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of glucose on bovine lactoferrin's (LF) conformation, thermodynamic stability and osteoblastic cell proliferation...
  27. Massucci M, Giansanti F, Di Nino G, Turacchio M, Giardi M, Botti D, et al. Proteolytic activity of bovine lactoferrin. Biometals. 2004;17:249-55 pubmed
    Bovine lactoferrin catalyzes the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates (i.e., Z-aminoacyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin)...
  28. Cornish J. Lactoferrin promotes bone growth. Biometals. 2004;17:331-5 pubmed
    We have demonstrated bovine or human lactoferrin to be an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue...
  29. Fasano M, Fanali G, Polticelli F, Ascenzi P, Antonini G. 1H NMR relaxometric characterization of bovine lactoferrin. J Inorg Biochem. 2004;98:1421-6 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is a mammalian iron binding protein present in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Its role in host defense mechanisms related to the non-immune defense system has been definitively established...
  30. Sasaki N, Sekiguchi M, Kikuchi S, Konno S. Anti-nociceptive effect of bovine milk-derived lactoferrin in a rat lumbar disc herniation model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1663-7 pubmed
    An experimental animal study. We evaluated the efficacy of lactoferrin (LF) compared with diclofenac to reduce the pain, using a rat lumbar disc herniation model. LF is a multifunctional protein that is found in milk...
  31. Zheng J, Ather J, Sonstegard T, Kerr D. Characterization of the infection-responsive bovine lactoferrin promoter. Gene. 2005;353:107-17 pubmed
    The concentration of lactoferrin in bovine milk is dramatically increased in response to infection. The high levels of lactoferrin may have a role in the prevention of microbial infection of the mammary gland...
  32. Yen M, Wu A, Yang Z, Gong Y, Chang E. Recognition roles of the carbohydrate glycotopes of human and bovine lactoferrins in lectin-N-glycan interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:139-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein belonging to the transferrin family. In addition to iron homeostasis, lactoferrin is also thought to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities...
  33. Malet A, Bournaud E, Lan A, Mikogami T, Tom D, Blais A. Bovine lactoferrin improves bone status of ovariectomized mice via immune function modulation. Bone. 2011;48:1028-35 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) supplementation can have a beneficial effect on postmenopausal bone loss by modulating bone formation and resorption...
  34. Mao Y, Zhu X, Xing S, Zhang M, Zhang H, Wang X, et al. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Res Vet Sci. 2015;103:107-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection...
  35. Rahman M, Kim W, Kumura H, Shimazaki K. Bovine lactoferrin region responsible for binding to bifidobacterial cell surface proteins. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:863-8 pubmed publisher
    Bovine lactoferrin promotes bifidobacterial growth. Its binding to bifidobacteria is thought to be responsible for such action...
  36. Ling T, Chen C, Huang Y, Liu I, Huang S, Huang J. Identification and characterization of the acidic pH binding sites for growth regulatory ligands of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38736-48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cell surface annexin VI may function as an acidic pH binding site or receptor and may also function as a co-receptor with LRP-1 at neutral pH. ..
  37. Wang H, Kong Z, Wang C, Huang J, Li Q, Hou M, et al. [Genetic polymorphism in 5'-flanking region of the lactoferrin gene and its associations with mastitis in Chinese Holstein cows]. Yi Chuan. 2009;31:393-9 pubmed
    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in milk, which acts mainly as a defense factor in the mammary gland. Polymorphism has been found in the bovine LF gene...
  38. Yamniuk A, Burling H, Vogel H. Thermodynamic characterization of the interactions between the immunoregulatory proteins osteopontin and lactoferrin. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2395-402 pubmed publisher
    The immunoregulatory proteins osteopontin (OPN) and lactoferrin (LF) are both highly abundant in milk, with a conserved ratio between different mammalian species, suggesting that the role of each protein in infant development may be ..
  39. Greathouse D, Vostrikov V, McClellan N, Chipollini J, Lay J, Liyanage R, et al. Lipid interactions of acylated tryptophan-methylated lactoferricin peptides by solid-state NMR. J Pept Sci. 2008;14:1103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..LfB) is a 25-residue innate immunity peptide released by pepsin from the N-terminal region of bovine lactoferrin. A smaller amidated peptide, LfB6 (RRWQWR-NH2) retains antimicrobial activity and is thought to constitute the &..
  40. Cornish J, Palmano K, Callon K, Watson M, Lin J, Valenti P, et al. Lactoferrin and bone; structure-activity relationships. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;84:297-302 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that lactoferrin can promote bone growth...
  41. Zabolewicz T, Barcewicz M, Brym P, Puckowska P, Kamiński S. Association of polymorphism within LTF gene promoter with lactoferrin concentration in milk of Holstein cows. Pol J Vet Sci. 2014;17:633-41 pubmed
    ..between single nucleotide polymorphism (A/C) in position -28 located in the TATA box of LTF gene and the lactoferrin concentration in bovine milk secreted by healthy and infected udders...
  42. Donovan S. The Role of Lactoferrin in Gastrointestinal and Immune Development and Function: A Preclinical Perspective. J Pediatr. 2016;173 Suppl:S16-28 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lactoferrin is a 77 kDa, iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentration in human milk compared with ..
  43. Zaczynska E, Kocieba M, Śliwińska E, Zimecki M. Bovine lactoferrin enhances proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and induces cytokine production in whole blood cultures. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2014;23:871-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin belongs to the immunoregulatory milk proteins involved in iron metabolism as well in providing innate immunity to newborns. The protein has been the subject of numerous clinical studies...
  44. Chen Y, Zheng Z, Zhu X, Shi Y, Tian D, Zhao F, et al. Lactoferrin Promotes Early Neurodevelopment and Cognition in Postnatal Piglets by Upregulating the BDNF Signaling Pathway and Polysialylation. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:256-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is a sialic acid (Sia)-rich, iron-binding milk glycoprotein that has multifunctional health benefits. Its potential role in neurodevelopment and cognition remains unknown...
  45. Hwang P, Zhou N, Shan X, Arrowsmith C, Vogel H. Three-dimensional solution structure of lactoferricin B, an antimicrobial peptide derived from bovine lactoferrin. Biochemistry. 1998;37:4288-98 pubmed
    ..LfcinB is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released by pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin, an 80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein with many immunologically important functions...
  46. Seyfert H, Tuckoricz A, Interthal H, Koczan D, Hobom G. Structure of the bovine lactoferrin-encoding gene and its promoter. Gene. 1994;143:265-9 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf), a ferric ion (Fe3+)-binding glycoprotein, is found most notably in milk, probably to mediate protection against microbial infection of the mammary gland...
  47. Mead P, Tweedie J. cDNA and protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:7167 pubmed
  48. Li S, Zhou H, Huang G, Liu N. Inhibition of HBV infection by bovine lactoferrin and iron-, zinc-saturated lactoferrin. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2009;198:19-25 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated the effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLf), lactoferrin hydrolysate, or iron-, zinc-saturated lactoferrin on hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected HepG2 cells...
  49. Akiyama Y, Oshima K, Shin K, Wakabayashi H, Abe F, Nadano D, et al. Intracellular retention and subsequent release of bovine milk lactoferrin taken up by human enterocyte-like cell lines, Caco-2, C2BBe1 and HT-29. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1023-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein contained in milk and other exocrine fluids, and is believed to have multiple biological functions...
  50. Hoek K, Milne J, Grieve P, Dionysius D, Smith R. Antibacterial activity in bovine lactoferrin-derived peptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:54-9 pubmed
    Several peptides sharing high sequence homology with lactoferricin B (Lf-cin B) were generated from bovine lactoferrin (Lf) with recombinant chymosin...
  51. Huang J, Wang H, Wang C, Li J, Li Q, Hou M, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotypes and combined genotypes of lactoferrin gene and their associations with mastitis in Chinese Holstein cattle. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:477-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is naturally produced by the mammary gland, having biological functions of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities...
  52. Lee W, Park M, Kim K, Song H, Kim K, Lee C, et al. Identification of lactoferrin and glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 in bovine cervical mucus: A putative marker for oestrous detection. Reprod Domest Anim. 2017;52:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Among differentially expressed proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) showed a twofold increase during the CIDR-induced ..
  53. Ono T, Fujisaki C, Ishihara Y, Ikoma K, Morishita S, Murakoshi M, et al. Potent lipolytic activity of lactoferrin in mature adipocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:566-71 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein found in mammalian milk. We have shown in a previous clinical study that enteric-coated bovine LF tablets decreased visceral fat accumulation...
  54. Lum J, Nikaido M, Shimamura M, Shimodaira H, Shedlock A, Okada N, et al. Consistency of SINE insertion topology and flanking sequence tree: quantifying relationships among cetartiodactyls. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:1417-24 pubmed
    ..Sequence simulations suggest that this rate heterogeneity may be an artifact resulting from the inaccuracies of the substitution model used...
  55. Bai X, Teng D, Tian Z, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Wang J. Contribution of bovine lactoferrin inter-lobe region to iron binding stability and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Biometals. 2010;23:431-9 pubmed publisher
    The investigation of the recombinant bovine lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial protein (rBLfA) demonstrates that the inter-lobe region of bovine lactoferrin contributes to iron binding stability and antimicrobial activity against ..
  56. Pecorini C, Sassera D, Rebucci R, Saccone F, Bandi C, Baldi A. Evaluation of the protective effect of bovine lactoferrin against lipopolysaccharides in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:267-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is a non-haem iron-binding glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 80 kDa, synthesized by glandular epithelial cells and stored in the secondary granules of neutrophils...
  57. Chien Y, Chen W, Hsu W, Chiou S. Bovine lactoferrin inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus by binding to heparan sulfate and receptor for low density lipoprotein. Virology. 2008;379:143-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is a natural anti-microbial protein which affects Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) activity...
  58. Luo H, Chen S, Ren F, Guo H, Lin S, Xu W. In vitro reconstitution of antimicrobial pathogen activity by expressed recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal peptide in Escherichia coli. J Dairy Res. 2007;74:233-8 pubmed
    Recombinant bovine lactoferrin N-terminal polypeptide (rbLF-N) Escherichia coli expression system was constructed and the rbLF-N antimicrobial activity was displayed by enzymatic proteolysis in this study...
  59. Tsubota A, Yoshikawa T, Nariai K, Mitsunaga M, Yumoto Y, Fukushima K, et al. Bovine lactoferrin potently inhibits liver mitochondrial 8-OHdG levels and retrieves hepatic OGG1 activities in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats. J Hepatol. 2008;48:486-93 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect of lactoferrin on oxidative liver damage and its mechanism, we used Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats that spontaneously develop fulminant-like hepatitis and lethal hepatic failure...
  60. Jegasothy H, Weerakkody R, Selby Pham S, Bennett L. In vitro heme and non-heme iron capture from hemoglobin, myoglobin and ferritin by bovine lactoferrin and implications for suppression of reactive oxygen species in vivo. Biometals. 2014;27:1371-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf), present in colostrum and milk is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glyco-proteins, with stronger binding capacity to ferric iron than hemoglobin, myoglobin or transferrin...
  61. Wang B. Molecular Determinants of Milk Lactoferrin as a Bioactive Compound in Early Neurodevelopment and Cognition. J Pediatr. 2016;173 Suppl:S29-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is a sialic acid-rich, iron-binding milk glycoprotein, known to have multifunctional health benefits, including its ability to modulate immune function and facilitate iron absorption, as well as its antibacterial and ..
  62. Hou J, Chen E, Wei S, Lin F, Lin Q, Lan X, et al. Lactoferrin inhibits apoptosis through insulin-like growth factor I in primary rat osteoblasts. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:523-30 pubmed publisher
    Excessive apoptosis of osteoblasts is the major cause of low bone mass, and bovine lactoferrin (bLF), an iron-binding glycoprotein, might protect osteoblastic cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal...
  63. Arciniega Martínez I, Campos Rodríguez R, Drago Serrano M, Sánchez Torres L, Cruz Hernández T, Reséndiz Albor A. Modulatory Effects of Oral Bovine Lactoferrin on the IgA Response at Inductor and Effector Sites of Distal Small Intestine from BALB/c Mice. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016;64:57-63 pubmed publisher
    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) up-modulates intestinal IgA that is essential for homeostasis and which might confer protection to the distal small intestine that is vulnerable to inflammation...
  64. Pierce A, Colavizza D, Benaissa M, Maes P, Tartar A, Montreuil J, et al. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of bovine lactotransferrin. Eur J Biochem. 1991;196:177-84 pubmed
    The screening of a bovine submaxillary gland cDNA library yielded 25 clones coding for bovine lactotransferrin. The nucleotide sequence of the longest insert contained a protein-coding region of 2115 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region ..
  65. van Leeuwen S, Schoemaker R, Timmer C, Kamerling J, Dijkhuizen L. Use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin affinity chromatography in the structural analysis of the bovine lactoferrin N-linked glycosylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:1444-55 pubmed publisher
    Over the years, the N-glycosylation of both human and bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been studied extensively, however not all aspects have been studied in as much detail...
  66. Mir R, Singh N, Vikram G, Sinha M, Bhushan A, Kaur P, et al. Structural and binding studies of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;500:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to minimize these side effects, C-terminal half (C-lobe) of colostrum protein lactoferrin has been indicated to be useful if co-administered with NSAIDs...
  67. Lee J, Jang Y, Jin B, Kim S, Kim H, Kwon B, et al. Retinoic acid enhances lactoferrin-induced IgA responses by increasing betaglycan expression. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016;13:862-870 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) and retinoic acid (RA) are enriched in colostrum, milk, and mucosal tissues...
  68. Kutila T, Pyörälä S, Saloniemi H, Kaartinen L. Antibacterial effect of bovine lactoferrin against udder pathogens. Acta Vet Scand. 2003;44:35-42 pubmed
    The antibacterial effect of lactoferrin (Lf) was tested on isolates of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as well as on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P...
  69. García Montoya I, González Chávez S, Salazar Martínez J, Arévalo Gallegos S, Sinagawa García S, Rascón Cruz Q. Expression and characterization of recombinant bovine lactoferrin in E. coli. Biometals. 2013;26:113-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins with a number of properties, including antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
  70. Günther P, Mikeler E, Hamprecht K, Schneider Schaulies J, Jahn G, Dennehy K. CD209/DC-SIGN mediates efficient infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by clinical adenovirus 2C isolates in the presence of bovine lactoferrin. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1754-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the antiviral protein bovine lactoferrin enhances infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) by adenovirus species C serotype 2 (2C) isolates...
  71. Hidalgo M, Loncomán C, Hidalgo A, Andrade V, Carretta M, Burgos R. Decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and lactoferrin release in blood neutrophils of heifers during the calving period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2014;160:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..bioparticles using flow cytometry, chemotaxis induced by chemoattractants using the transwell plate assay, lactoferrin release using ELISA and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression using real time-PCR...
  72. Chopra A, Gupta I, Verma A, Chakravarty A, Vohra V. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015;18:465-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis...