Gene Symbol: IGF2
Description: insulin like growth factor 2
Alias: insulin-like growth factor II, IGF-II, bovine IGF2, erythrotropin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A)
Species: cow
Products:     IGF2

Top Publications

  1. Congote L, Mazza L, Palfree R. Nucleotide sequence of the central coding region of bovine erythrotropin/insulin-like growth factor II cDNA from fetal intestine and northern analysis of the major IGF II transcripts at the time of hepatic erythropoiesis. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:127-31 pubmed
    1. cDNA for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) was synthesized from poly A(+)-RNA from fetal bovine intestine and amplified. 2...
  2. Han R, Zan L, Yang D, Hao R. [SNPs detection of IGF2 gene and its relationship with carcass and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle]. Yi Chuan. 2008;30:1579-84 pubmed
    PCR-SSCP technology was used to analyze the correlation of polymorphisms IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor) gene with carcass and meat quality traits in 186 Qinchuan cattle at the age of 24-month...
  3. Curchoe C, Zhang S, Bin Y, Zhang X, Yang L, Feng D, et al. Promoter-specific expression of the imprinted IGF2 gene in cattle (Bos taurus). Biol Reprod. 2005;73:1275-81 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we obtained virtually the entire sequence of the bovine IGF2 cDNA, identified expressed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both exons 3 and 10, and determined the ..
  4. Li Q, Blacher R, Esch F, Congote L. A heparin-binding erythroid cell stimulating factor from fetal bovine serum has the N-terminal sequence of insulin-like growth factor II. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;166:557-61 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal sequence of the isolated peptide was identical to the N-terminal sequence of bovine erythrotropin or insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II)...
  5. Honegger A, Humbel R. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in fetal and adult bovine serum. Purification, primary structures, and immunological cross-reactivities. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:569-75 pubmed
    ..Bovine IGF-I was equipotent to human IGF-I in both radioimmunoassays and radioreceptor assays within the limits of the assay. ..
  6. Gebert C, Wrenzycki C, Herrmann D, Gröger D, Reinhardt R, Hajkova P, et al. The bovine IGF2 gene is differentially methylated in oocyte and sperm DNA. Genomics. 2006;88:222-9 pubmed
    ..Only partial sequence information is available for the bovine IGF2 gene and no DMR has currently been identified...
  7. Wang L, Feng H, Ma Y, Cang M, Li H, Yan Z, et al. Expression of IGF receptors and its ligands in bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;114:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..0% versus 19.2%; p<0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of in vitro maturation or culture media with IGF-II affects the development of bovine embryos and could be used to improve in vitro embryo production. ..
  8. Huang Y, Zhan Z, Sun Y, Wang J, Li M, Lan X, et al. Comparative analysis of the IGF2 and ZBED6 gene variants and haplotypes reveals significant effect of growth traits in cattle. Genome. 2013;56:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations in the coding region of ZBED6, two of which were in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the bovine IGF2. The 58 haplotypes were inferred in 1522 individuals representing four purebred cattle breeds from China...
  9. Flaga J, Gorka P, Kowalski Z, Kaczor U, Pietrzak P, Zabielski R. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2) mRNA levels in relation to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development in newborn calves. Pol J Vet Sci. 2011;14:605-13 pubmed
    ..The reduction in IGFs mRNA level after 5 day of life in the duodenum (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and in the jejunum (IGF-1) was associated with reduction in villi length (duodenum and jejunum), and the increase of crypt depth (duodenum). ..

More Information


  1. Carvalho J, Michalczechen Lacerda V, Sartori R, Rodrigues F, Bravim O, Franco M, et al. The methylation patterns of the IGF2 and IGF2R genes in bovine spermatozoa are not affected by flow-cytometric sex sorting. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study were to investigate the effect of sexing by flow cytometry on the methylation patterns of the IGF2 and IGF2R genes. Frozen-thawed, unsorted, and sex-sorted sperm samples from four Nellore bulls were used...
  2. Micke G, Sullivan T, McMillen I, Gentili S, Perry V. Protein intake during gestation affects postnatal bovine skeletal muscle growth and relative expression of IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2 and IGF2R. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;332:234-41 pubmed publisher
    Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1 and IGF2 and their receptor (IGF1R and IGF2R) mRNA in fetal skeletal muscle are changed by variations in maternal nutrient intake...
  3. Moore K, Kramer J, Rodriguez Sallaberry C, Yelich J, Drost M. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family genes are aberrantly expressed in bovine conceptuses produced in vitro or by nuclear transfer. Theriogenology. 2007;68:717-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these differences in growth factor gene expression during early placental attachment and rapid embryonic growth may directly or indirectly contribute to increased losses and abnormalities in IVP- and NT-derived embryos. ..
  4. Goodall J, Schmutz S. IGF2 gene characterization and association with rib eye area in beef cattle. Anim Genet. 2007;38:154-61 pubmed
    ..We previously identified the bovine IGF2 c.-292C>T SNP in the non-translated exon 2...
  5. Huang Y, Zhan Z, Li X, Wu S, Sun Y, Xue J, et al. SNP and haplotype analysis reveal IGF2 variants associated with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mutations in the bovine IGF2 with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle...
  6. Curchoe C, Zhang S, Yang L, Page R, Tian X. Hypomethylation trends in the intergenic region of the imprinted IGF2 and H19 genes in cloned cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;116:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The imprinted fetal mitogen IGF2 is clustered with H19 and the two genes are co-regulated in humans and mice...
  7. Fagundes N, Michalczechen Lacerda V, Caixeta E, Machado G, Rodrigues F, Melo E, et al. Methylation status in the intragenic differentially methylated region of the IGF2 locus in Bos taurus indicus oocytes with different developmental competencies. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an important growth factor, and it is imprinted in several mammalian species...
  8. Maruotti J, Mu oz M, Degrelle S, G mez E, Louet C, D ez C, et al. Efficient derivation of bovine embryonic stem cells needs more than active core pluripotency factors. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:461-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although FGF and Activin pathways are indeed present and active in the bovine, it is not sufficient/enough to maintain a long-term pluripotency ex vivo, as was reported for mouse and pig EpiSCs...
  9. Flisikowski K, Adamowicz T, Strabel T, Jankowski T, Switonski M, Zwierzchowski L. An InDel polymorphism in exon 6 of IGF2 associated with the breeding value of Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls. Biochem Genet. 2007;45:139-43 pubmed
  10. Sherman E, Nkrumah J, Murdoch B, Li C, Wang Z, Fu A, et al. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the bovine neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 2, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1-16 pubmed
    ..neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), IGF2, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanocortin-4 ..
  11. Franco M, Fagundes N, Michalczechen Lacerda V, Caixeta E, de Castro Rodrigues F, Machado G, et al. Characterisation of the methylation pattern in the intragenic CpG island of the IGF2 gene in Bos taurus indicus cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2014;31:115-20 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to characterise the methylation pattern in a CpG island of the IGF2 gene in cumulus cells from 1-3 mm and ???8.0 mm follicles and to evaluate the effects of in vitro maturation on this pattern...
  12. Gebert C, Wrenzycki C, Herrmann D, Gröger D, Thiel J, Reinhardt R, et al. DNA methylation in the IGF2 intragenic DMR is re-established in a sex-specific manner in bovine blastocysts after somatic cloning. Genomics. 2009;94:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..intragenic differentially methylated region (DMR) within the last exon of the bovine Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene provides a diagnostic tool for in-depth investigation of bovine imprinting and regulatory mechanisms which ..
  13. Berkowicz E, Magee D, Sikora K, Berry D, Howard D, Mullen M, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the imprinted bovine insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) locus are associated with dairy performance in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle. J Dairy Res. 2011;78:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..assessed genotype-phenotype associations between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the bovine IGF2 locus on chromosome 29 and a range of performance traits related to milk production, animal growth and body ..
  14. Huang Y, Wang J, Zhan Z, Cao X, Sun Y, Lan X, et al. Assessment of association between variants and haplotypes of the IGF2 gene in beef cattle. Gene. 2013;528:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were identified in the bovine IGF2 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length ..
  15. Su J, Wang Y, Xing X, Zhang L, Sun H, Zhang Y. Melatonin significantly improves the developmental competence of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. J Pineal Res. 2015;59:455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, melatonin reduced apoptosis and ROS in bovine SCNT embryos and enhanced blastocyst quality, thereby ultimately improving bovine cloning efficiency. ..
  16. Brown W, Dziegielewska K, Foreman R, Saunders N. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of insulin-like growth factor II cDNAs from adult bovine and fetal sheep liver. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4614 pubmed
  17. Olbromski R, Siadkowska E, Zelazowska B, Zwierzchowski L. Allelic gene expression imbalance of bovine IGF2, LEP and CCL2 genes in liver, kidney and pituitary. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Out of the studied group of genes 3 of them-LEP (leptin), IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), CCL2 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2) showed allelic expression imbalance.
  18. Francis G, Upton F, Ballard F, McNeil K, Wallace J. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in bovine colostrum. Sequences and biological activities compared with those of a potent truncated form. Biochem J. 1988;251:95-103 pubmed
    ..The approximately 10-fold effect on biological activity of removing the N-terminal tripeptide is unexpected in view of current information on IGF-1 structure and function. ..
  19. Byrne A, Southgate J, Brison D, Leese H. Regulation of apoptosis in the bovine blastocyst by insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) superfamily. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;62:489-95 pubmed
    ..These data suggest roles for insulin and the IGFs as mitogens and/or apoptotic survival factors during early bovine development. Perturbation of IGF-II regulated growth may be involved in fetal oversize. ..
  20. Goodall J, Schmutz S. Linkage mapping of IGF2 on cattle chromosome 29. Anim Genet. 2003;34:313 pubmed
  21. Spicer L, Aad P. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 2 stimulates steroidogenesis and mitosis of bovine granulosa cells through the IGF1 receptor: role of follicle-stimulating hormone and IGF2 receptor. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:18-27 pubmed
    Little is known regarding the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and the regulation of the IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) during follicular development...
  22. Griinari J, McGuire M, Dwyer D, Bauman D, Barbano D, House W. The role of insulin in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1997;80:2361-71 pubmed
    ..Overall, results indicated that the ability of the mammary gland to synthesize milk protein does not function at maximum capacity, and there is a previously unrecognized potential to enhance milk protein percentage and yield. ..