Gene Symbol: IFNT2
Description: interferon tau
Alias: IFN-tau-c2, IFNT, IFNT1, TP-1, interferon tau-2, IFN-tau-1, IFN-tau-2, IFN-tau1, IFN-tau2, antiluteolysin, interferon alpha II, interferon tau-1, interferon, trophoblast, interferon-tau1e, interferon-tau3e, trophoblast antiluteolytic protein, trophoblast protein-1, trophoblast type I interferon, trophoblastin
Species: cow
Products:     IFNT2

Top Publications

  1. Majewska M, Lee H, Tasaki Y, Acosta T, Szostek A, Siemieniuch M, et al. Is cortisol a modulator of interferon tau action in the endometrium during early pregnancy in cattle?. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;93:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine whether GCs may serve as a mediator/modulator of interferon-? (IFNT) action during early pregnancy in cows...
  2. Giraldo A, Hylan D, Ballard C, Purpera M, Vaught T, Lynn J, et al. Effect of epigenetic modifications of donor somatic cells on the subsequent chromatin remodeling of cloned bovine embryos. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:832-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aberrant DNMT1 expression may partially contribute to the inefficient nuclear reprogramming observed in cloned embryos. ..
  3. Bai H, Sakurai T, Kim M, Muroi Y, Ideta A, Aoyagi Y, et al. Involvement of GATA transcription factors in the regulation of endogenous bovine interferon-tau gene transcription. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1143-52 pubmed publisher
    Expression of interferon-tau (IFNT), necessary for pregnancy establishment in ruminant ungulates, is regulated in a temporal and spatial manner...
  4. Kusama K, Bai R, Sakurai T, Bai H, Ideta A, Aoyagi Y, et al. A transcriptional cofactor YAP regulates IFNT expression via transcription factor TEAD in bovine conceptuses. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2016;57:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study identified that among 8 bovine IFNT genes, only 2 forms of IFNTs, IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1, were expressed by the conceptuses during the periattachment period...
  5. Vitorino Carvalho A, Eozenou C, Healey G, Forde N, Reinaud P, Chebrout M, et al. Analysis of STAT1 expression and biological activity reveals interferon-tau-dependent STAT1-regulated SOCS genes in the bovine endometrium. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2016;28:459-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo and in vitro, interferon-tau (IFNT) stimulated STAT1 mRNA expression, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
  6. Sakurai T, Bai H, Bai R, Sato D, Arai M, Okuda K, et al. Down-regulation of interferon tau gene transcription with a transcription factor, EOMES. Mol Reprod Dev. 2013;80:371-83 pubmed publisher
    Interferon tau (IFNT), produced for a short interval during early pregnancy by the ruminant embryonic trophectoderm, is essential for the maintenance of early pregnancy, but the mechanism by which it is transcriptionally regulated has not ..
  7. Loureiro B, Block J, Favoreto M, Carambula S, Pennington K, Ealy A, et al. Consequences of conceptus exposure to colony-stimulating factor 2 on survival, elongation, interferon-? secretion, and gene expression. Reproduction. 2011;141:617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Antiviral activity in uterine flushings, a measure of the amount of interferon-? (IFNT2) secreted by the conceptus, tended to be greater for cows receiving CSF2-treated conceptuses than for cows ..
  8. Yang Q, Johnson S, Ealy A. Protein kinase C delta mediates fibroblast growth factor-2-induced interferon-tau expression in bovine trophoblast. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:933-43 pubmed publisher
    Interferon-tau (IFNT) is the trophoblast-secreted factor responsible for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in ruminants...
  9. Ezashi T, Das P, Gupta R, Walker A, Roberts R. The role of homeobox protein distal-less 3 and its interaction with ETS2 in regulating bovine interferon-tau gene expression-synergistic transcriptional activation with ETS2. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A bovine IFNT1 promoter (-457 to +66), linked to a luciferase (luc) reporter, was transactivated approximately 20-fold by ..

More Information


  1. Stewart H, McCann S, Flint A. Structure of an interferon-alpha 2 gene expressed in the bovine conceptus early in gestation. J Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:275-82 pubmed
    ..Computer-aided analysis of the 5' flanking sequence demonstrated a similarity with that of bovine IFN-alpha 2 and the existence of a possible viral induction sequence. ..
  2. Ezashi T, Roberts R. Regulation of interferon-tau (IFN-tau) gene promoters by growth factors that target the Ets-2 composite enhancer: a possible model for maternal control of IFN-tau production by the conceptus during early pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4452-60 pubmed
    Expression of interferon-tau gene (IFNT) by conceptuses of cattle and sheep must be in phase with the physiological state of the mother if the pregnancy is to be successful...
  3. Martal J, Chêne N, Huynh L, L Haridon R, Reinaud P, Guillomot M, et al. IFN-tau: a novel subtype I IFN1. Structural characteristics, non-ubiquitous expression, structure-function relationships, a pregnancy hormonal embryonic signal and cross-species therapeutic potentialities. Biochimie. 1998;80:755-77 pubmed
    ..It is believed to suppress pulsatile release of endometrial PGF-2alpha by preventing oxytocin and estrogen receptor expression. Additionally, it directly regulates prostaglandin metabolism and possibly the PGE:PGF-2alpha ratio. ..
  4. Ealy A, Larson S, Liu L, Alexenko A, Winkelman G, Kubisch H, et al. Polymorphic forms of expressed bovine interferon-tau genes: relative transcript abundance during early placental development, promoter sequences of genes and biological activity of protein products. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2906-15 pubmed
    ..In summary, many IFN-tau genes, which are probably under similar transcriptional control, are expressed in bovine trophoblast during the peri-implantation period of development. ..
  5. Gierek D, Baczynska D, Ugorski M, Bazer F, Kurpisz M, Bednarski T, et al. Differential effect of IFN-tau on proliferation and distribution of lymphocyte subsets in one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction in cows and heifers. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;71:126-31 pubmed
  6. Takatsu K, Acosta T. Expression of Heparin-Binding EGF-Like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) in Bovine Endometrium: Effects of HB-EGF and Interferon-Ï„ on Prostaglandin Production. Reprod Domest Anim. 2015;50:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..HB-EGF and IFN-Ï„ have the ability to regulate PGs production by stromal cells and therefore may play a role in the local regulation of uterine function at the time of implantation in cattle. ..
  7. Dobbs K, Gagné D, Fournier E, Dufort I, Robert C, Block J, et al. Sexual dimorphism in developmental programming of the bovine preimplantation embryo caused by colony-stimulating factor 2. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:80 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF2 decreased length and IFNT secretion of female embryos but increased length and IFNT secretion of male embryos...
  8. Forde N, Duffy G, McGettigan P, Browne J, Mehta J, Kelly A, et al. Evidence for an early endometrial response to pregnancy in cattle: both dependent upon and independent of interferon tau. Physiol Genomics. 2012;44:799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..to the presence of the conceptus (using RNAseq), 2) investigate if these genes are regulated by interferon tau (IFNT) in vivo, and 3) determine if they are predictive of the pregnancy status of postpartum dairy cows...
  9. Kimmins S, Russell G, Lim H, Hall B, Maclaren L. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:38 pubmed
    ..During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERalpha in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin alphavbeta3 expression. ..
  10. Hickman C, Ainslie A, Ealy A, Ashworth C, Rooke J. Effect of ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on bovine in vitro embryo development and blastocyst interferon-? secretion. Reprod Domest Anim. 2011;46:608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) in in vitro culture on secretion of interferon-? (IFNT) by bovine blastocysts. At 32 h post-insemination (p.i...
  11. Hansen T, Leaman D, Cross J, Mathialagan N, Bixby J, Roberts R. The genes for the trophoblast interferons and the related interferon-alpha II possess distinct 5'-promoter and 3'-flanking sequences. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:3060-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the evidence presented, it is proposed that the trophoblast interferons constitute a separate subclass of IFN-alpha distinct from IFN-alpha II and IFN-alpha I. ..
  12. Walker A, Kimura K, Roberts R. Expression of bovine interferon-tau variants according to sex and age of conceptuses. Theriogenology. 2009;72:44-53 pubmed publisher
    Interferon-tau (IFNT), which plays a major role in maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle, is transcribed from multiple genes. Moreover, there are at least 12 cDNA variants, many presumably allelic...
  13. Sakurai T, Sakamoto A, Muroi Y, Bai H, Nagaoka K, Tamura K, et al. Induction of endogenous interferon tau gene transcription by CDX2 and high acetylation in bovine nontrophoblast cells. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    Interferon tau gene (IFNT) is expressed only by mononuclear trophectoderm cells in ruminant ungulates...
  14. Shirasuna K, Matsumoto H, Kobayashi E, Nitta A, Haneda S, Matsui M, et al. Upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes and interleukin-10 in peripheral blood immune cells during early pregnancy in dairy cows. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:84-90 pubmed
    In cows, interferon-tau (IFNT) regulates maternal recognition around days 15-19 after artificial insemination (AI)...
  15. Kang D, Ryoo S, Chung B, Lee J, Park S, Han J, et al. Amino acid differences in interferon-tau (IFN-?) of Bos taurus Coreanae and Holstein. Cytokine. 2012;59:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? was first identified in ruminant ungulates as a pregnancy recognition hormone, trophoblastin. IFN-? constitutes a new class of type I IFN, which possesses the common features of type I IFN, such as the ..
  16. Senda T, Saitoh S, Mitsui Y, Li J, Roberts R. A three-dimensional model of interferon-tau. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1995;15:1053-60 pubmed
    ..As a result, the polypeptide segment around this region (Phe36 to Gln40) of loop AB is likely to be considerably more flexible than in other type I IFN. ..
  17. Hickman C, Clinton M, Ainslie A, Ashworth C, Rooke J. Heat shock induces interferon-TAU gene expression by in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;70:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study determined the effects of heat shock upon IFN-? (IFNT) gene expression by bovine blastocysts in vitro...
  18. Imakawa K, Hansen T, Malathy P, Anthony R, Polites H, Marotti K, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acids corresponding to bovine trophoblast protein-1: a comparison with ovine trophoblast protein-1 and bovine interferon-alpha II. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:127-39 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these embryonic IFNs play a role in controlling immunoreactions at the trophoblast-uterus interface as well as triggering other maternal responses to pregnancy. ..
  19. Shirasuna K, Matsumoto H, Matsuyama S, Kimura K, Bollwein H, Miyamoto A. Possible role of interferon tau on the bovine corpus luteum and neutrophils during the early pregnancy. Reproduction. 2015;150:217-25 pubmed publisher
    When pregnancy is established, interferon tau (IFNT), a well-known pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, is secreted by embryonic trophoblast cells and acts within the uterus to prepare for pregnancy...
  20. Michael D, Alvarez I, Ocón O, Powell A, Talbot N, Johnson S, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is expressed by the bovine uterus and stimulates interferon-tau production in bovine trophectoderm. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3571-9 pubmed
    ..essential for conceptus development and secretion of the maternal recognition-of-pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), in ruminant species...
  21. Forde N, Carter F, Spencer T, Bazer F, Sandra O, Mansouri Attia N, et al. Conceptus-induced changes in the endometrial transcriptome: how soon does the cow know she is pregnant?. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:144-56 pubmed publisher
    ..symbol), and KCNMA1 was reduced the most, but short-term treatment with recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT) in vitro or in vivo did not alter their expression...
  22. Robinson R, Fray M, Wathes D, Lamming G, Mann G. In vivo expression of interferon tau mRNA by the embryonic trophoblast and uterine concentrations of interferon tau protein during early pregnancy in the cow. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:470-4 pubmed