Gene Symbol: GNB1
Description: G protein subunit beta 1
Alias: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1, guanine nucleotide-binding protein, beta-1 subunit, transducin beta chain 1
Species: cow
Products:     GNB1

Top Publications

  1. Clack J, Juhl M, Rice C, Li J, Witzmann F. Proteomic analysis of transducin beta-subunit structural heterogeneity. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:3493-9 pubmed
    ..that all of the spots were the same gene product, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) beta-subunit 1 (GNB1; T(beta1)). This suggested that post-translational modification was responsible for the differences in pI...
  2. Spiegelberg B, Hamm H. G betagamma binds histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and inhibits its transcriptional co-repression activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41769-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data imply that HDAC5 and possibly other class II HDACs can be added to the growing list of G betagamma effectors. ..
  3. Wall M, Coleman D, Lee E, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Posner B, Gilman A, et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell. 1995;83:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade. ..
  4. Dell E, Connor J, Chen S, Stebbins E, Skiba N, Mochly Rosen D, et al. The betagamma subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins interacts with RACK1 and two other WD repeat proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49888-95 pubmed
  5. Loew A, Ho Y, Blundell T, Bax B. Phosducin induces a structural change in transducin beta gamma. Structure. 1998;6:1007-19 pubmed
    ..Regulation of this membrane association/dissociation switch of Gt beta gamma by phosducin may be a general mechanism for attenuation of G protein coupled signal transduction cascades. ..
  6. Sugimoto K, Nukada T, Tanabe T, Takahashi H, Noda M, Minamino N, et al. Primary structure of the beta-subunit of bovine transducin deduced from the cDNA sequence. FEBS Lett. 1985;191:235-40 pubmed
  7. Cuello F, Schulze R, Heemeyer F, Meyer H, Lutz S, Jakobs K, et al. Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 IN Gbeta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7220-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NDPK B forms complexes with Gbetagamma dimers and contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP via intermediately phosphorylated His-266 in Gbeta(1) subunits. ..
  8. Tesmer V, Kawano T, Shankaranarayanan A, Kozasa T, Tesmer J. Snapshot of activated G proteins at the membrane: the Galphaq-GRK2-Gbetagamma complex. Science. 2005;310:1686-90 pubmed
    ..Galphaq forms an effector-like interaction with the GRK2 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) homology domain that is distinct from and does not overlap with that used to bind RGS proteins such as RGS4. ..
  9. Smrcka A, Kichik N, Tarrago T, Burroughs M, Park M, Itoga N, et al. NMR analysis of G-protein betagamma subunit complexes reveals a dynamic G(alpha)-Gbetagamma subunit interface and multiple protein recognition modes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data show that Gbetagamma subunits explore a range of conformations that can be exploited during molecular recognition by diverse binding partners. ..

More Information


  1. Fong H, Hurley J, Hopkins R, Miake Lye R, Johnson M, Doolittle R, et al. Repetitive segmental structure of the transducin beta subunit: homology with the CDC4 gene and identification of related mRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:2162-6 pubmed
    ..8 and 2.9 kb in length. These results suggest that the mRNAs are the processed products of a small number of closely related genes or of a single highly complex beta gene. ..
  2. Threadgill D, Threadgill D, Moll Y, Weiss J, Zhang N, Davey H, et al. Syntenic assignment of human chromosome 1 homologous loci in the bovine. Genomics. 1994;22:626-30 pubmed
    ..feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog (FGR), alpha fucosidase (FUCA1), G-protein beta 1 subunit (GNB1), alpha 1A amylase, (AMY1), the neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), and alpha skeletal actin (..
  3. Sondek J, Bohm A, Lambright D, Hamm H, Sigler P. Crystal structure of a G-protein beta gamma dimer at 2.1A resolution. Nature. 1996;379:369-74 pubmed
    ..The structure details interactions between G protein beta- and gamma-subunits and highlights regions implicated in effector modulation for the conserved family of G protein beta gamma dimers. ..
  4. Lodowski D, Pitcher J, Capel W, Lefkowitz R, Tesmer J. Keeping G proteins at bay: a complex between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and Gbetagamma. Science. 2003;300:1256-62 pubmed
  5. Gao Y, Westfield G, Erickson J, Cerione R, Skiniotis G, Ramachandran S. Isolation and structure-function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin-G protein complex. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14280-14289 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. ..
  6. Sakihama T, Masuda K, Sato T, Doi T, Kodama T, Hamakubo T. Functional reconstitution of G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation by a baculoviral co-display system. J Biotechnol. 2008;135:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Since BV is essentially free of endogenous GPCRs, this BV co-display system should prove highly useful for the development of functional assay systems for GPCRs. ..
  7. Yang P, Homan K, Li Y, Cruz Rodríguez O, Tesmer J, Chen Z. Effect of Lipid Composition on the Membrane Orientation of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2-G?1?2 Complex. Biochemistry. 2016;55:2841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PIP2 not only helps recruit GRK2 to the membrane but also "fine tunes" the orientation of the GRK2-G?? complex so that it is better positioned to phosphorylate activated GPCRs. ..