Gene Symbol: FDX1
Description: ferredoxin 1
Alias: adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, adrenal ferredoxin, hepato-ferredoxin
Species: cow

Top Publications

  1. Sagara Y, Sawae H, Kimura A, Sagara Nakano Y, Morohashi K, Miyoshi K, et al. Structural organization of the bovine adrenodoxin gene. J Biochem. 1990;107:77-83 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that exon 1, which encodes the prepeptide region of the major type Ad mRNA, has intruded into the region between exon 1' and exon 2. ..
  2. Sakihama N, Hiwatashi A, Miyatake A, Shin M, Ichikawa Y. Isolation and purification of mature bovine adrenocortical ferredoxin with an elongated carboxyl end. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;264:23-9 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence obtained on whether the deletion of Glu-128 was due to so-called carboxyl-terminal processing or to proteolytic degradation during storage and purification. ..
  3. Muller J, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U. Adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin complex structure suggests electron transfer path in steroid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2786-9 pubmed
    ..The AR.Adx complex represents the first structure of a biologically relevant complex between a ferredoxin and its reductase. ..
  4. Matsuo Y, Tomita S, Tsuneoka Y, Furukawa A, Ichikawa Y. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences of bovine hepato-ferredoxin cDNA; identical primary structures of hepato- and adreno-ferredoxins. Int J Biochem. 1992;24:289-95 pubmed
    ..7. Other factors may be involved in the tissue specific properties of ferredoxins. ..
  5. Okamura T, Kagimoto M, Simpson E, Waterman M. Multiple species of bovine adrenodoxin mRNA. Occurrence of two different mitochondrial precursor sequences associated with the same mature sequence. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10335-8 pubmed
    ..The biological significance of these two types of adrenodoxin precursor sequences remains obscure. ..
  6. Kagimoto M, Kagimoto K, Simpson E, Waterman M. Transcription of the bovine adrenodoxin gene produces two species of mRNA of which only one is translated into adrenodoxin. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:8925-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the adrenodoxin gene is the first example of a gene encoding a mitochondrial protein which falls into the category of genes having alternate promoters utilizing a pattern of alternative splicing. ..
  7. Schiffler B, Zöllner A, Bernhardt R. Kinetic and optical biosensor study of adrenodoxin mutant AdxS112W displaying an enhanced interaction towards the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1). Eur Biophys J. 2011;40:1275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are discussed using published structural data of the complexes. ..
  8. Yoo G, Bong J, Park M, Jose J, Kang M, Pyun J. Electrochemical analysis of autodisplayed adrenodoxin (Adx) on the outer membrane of E. coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:1509-13 pubmed publisher
  9. Okamura T, John M, Zuber M, Simpson E, Waterman M. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of the precursor form of bovine adrenodoxin: evidence for a previously unidentified COOH-terminal peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:5705-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Tanaka M, Haniu M, Yasunobu K, Kimura T. The amino acid sequence of bovine adrenodoxin. J Biol Chem. 1973;248:1141-57 pubmed
  2. Muller A, Muller J, Muller Y, Uhlmann H, Bernhardt R, Heinemann U. New aspects of electron transfer revealed by the crystal structure of a truncated bovine adrenodoxin, Adx(4-108). Structure. 1998;6:269-80 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that the clearly asymmetric charge distribution on the surface of Adx(4-108) and the resulting strong molecular dipole are involved in electrostatic steering of the interactions with AR and cytochrome P450. ..
  3. Pikuleva I, Tesh K, Waterman M, Kim Y. The tertiary structure of full-length bovine adrenodoxin suggests functional dimers. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;373:44-55 pubmed
    ..From these results it can be considered that the mechanism of electron transfer is not necessarily the same in different mitochondrial P450 systems. ..
  4. Beilke D, Weiss R, Lohr F, Pristovsek P, Hannemann F, Bernhardt R, et al. A new electron transport mechanism in mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase systems based on structural changes upon the reduction of adrenodoxin. Biochemistry. 2002;41:7969-78 pubmed
    The adrenal ferredoxin (adrenodoxin, Adx) is an acidic 14.4-kDa [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin that belongs to the vertebrate ferredoxin family...
  5. Zollner A, Nogues I, Heinz A, Medina M, Gomez Moreno C, Bernhardt R. Analysis of the interaction of a hybrid system consisting of bovine adrenodoxin reductase and flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119. Bioelectrochemistry. 2004;63:61-5 pubmed
    ..Compared with the corresponding physiological systems the electron transfer is rather slow, probably due to the lack of specificity at the interaction surface. ..
  6. Skjeldal L, Markley J, Coghlan V, Vickery L. 1H NMR spectra of vertebrate [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. Hyperfine resonances suggest different electron delocalization patterns from plant ferredoxins. Biochemistry. 1991;30:9078-83 pubmed
    ..B., La Mar, G. N., Banci, L., & Bertini, I. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 2263-2271].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..