Gene Symbol: CSN2
Description: casein beta
Alias: beta-casein, beta casein B, milk protein
Species: cow
Products:     CSN2

Top Publications

  1. Bonsing J, Ring J, Stewart A, Mackinlay A. Complete nucleotide sequence of the bovine beta-casein gene. Aust J Biol Sci. 1988;41:527-37 pubmed
    ..The first 30 nucleotides of the 3' flanking regions in the bovine and rat beta-caseins are well conserved, indicating that they are likely to be involved in the mechanism of 3' end processing of the primary transcript. ..
  2. Grosclaude F, Mahe M, Voglino G. [The beta E variant and the phosphorylation code of bovine caseins]. FEBS Lett. 1974;45:3-5 pubmed
  3. Qi P, Wickham E, Farrell H. Thermal and alkaline denaturation of bovine beta-casein. Protein J. 2004;23:389-402 pubmed
    ..The effect of urea denaturation on the bound complex effectively supports this observation. ..
  4. Silanikove N, Shamay A, Shinder D, Moran A. Stress down regulates milk yield in cows by plasmin induced beta-casein product that blocks K+ channels on the apical membranes. Life Sci. 2000;67:2201-12 pubmed
    ..plasminogen-plasmin system (PPS) (an enzymatic mechanism in milk, which leads to the breakdown of the major milk protein casein)...
  5. Kaminski S, Cieslińska A, Kostyra E. Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health. J Appl Genet. 2007;48:189-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, careful attention should be paid to that protein polymorphism, and deeper research is needed to verify the range and nature of its interactions with the human gastrointestinal tract and whole organism. ..
  6. Silanikove N, Shapiro F, Shinder D. Acute heat stress brings down milk secretion in dairy cows by up-regulating the activity of the milk-borne negative feedback regulatory system. BMC Physiol. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
  7. Bonfatti V, di Martino G, Cecchinato A, Vicario D, Carnier P. Effects of beta-kappa-casein (CSN2-CSN3) haplotypes and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) genotypes on milk production traits and detailed protein composition of individual milk of Simmental cows. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes or haplotypes by selective breeding might be an effective way to change milk protein composition.
  8. Sharifizadeh A, Saboury A, Moosavi Movahedi A, Salami M, Yousefi R. A new aspect to chaperone-like activity of bovine ?-casein by protein-protein interactions study. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:901-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of ?-CN due to enhancement of hydrophobicity and favoring the formation of first intermediate of CA, aggregation conveniently occurred with a higher rate at a low temperature. ..
  9. Malinowski J, Klempt M, Clawin R decker I, Lorenzen P, Meisel H. Identification of a NF?B inhibitory peptide from tryptic ?-casein hydrolysate. Food Chem. 2014;165:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The main peptide was synthesised and showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in HEK(nfkb-RE)-cells. Thus, for the first time, a casein-derived peptide having an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro has been identified...

More Information


  1. Ambro L, Pevala V, Ondrovicová G, Bellova J, Kunová N, Kutejova E, et al. Mutations to a glycine loop in the catalytic site of human Lon changes its protease, peptidase and ATPase activities. FEBS J. 2014;281:1784-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Lon (Endopeptidase La), EC STRUCTURED DIGITAL ABSTRACT: • hLonP cleaves beta casein by protease assay (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) • hLon and hLon bind by cross-linking study (View interaction).
  2. Tagliabracci V, Wiley S, Guo X, Kinch L, Durrant E, Wen J, et al. A Single Kinase Generates the Majority of the Secreted Phosphoproteome. Cell. 2015;161:1619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish Fam20C as the major secretory pathway protein kinase and serve as a foundation for new areas of investigation into the role of secreted protein phosphorylation in human biology and disease. ..
  3. Cohick W, Vicini J, Staples C, Clark J, McCutcheon S, Bauman D. Effects of intake and postruminal casein infusion on performance and concentrations of hormones in plasma of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 1986;69:3022-31 pubmed
    ..Yields of milk and milk protein were decreased by feed restriction and increased by casein infusion with no treatment interactions...
  4. Anaya López J, Contreras Guzmán O, Cárabez Trejo A, Baizabal Aguirre V, López Meza J, Valdez Alarcón J, et al. Invasive potential of bacterial isolates associated with subclinical bovine mastitis. Res Vet Sci. 2006;81:358-61 pubmed
    ..aureus control strain ATCC 27543. In conclusion, using the in vitro model of infection used in this study, differences in bacterial invasion capability may be detected. ..
  5. Jeong Y, Kim Y, Kim E, Kim S, Kim J, Park M, et al. Knock-in fibroblasts and transgenic blastocysts for expression of human FGF2 in the bovine β-casein gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination. Zygote. 2016;24:442-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene. ..
  6. Yousefi R, Gaudin J, Chobert J, Pourpak Z, Moin M, Moosavi Movahedi A, et al. Micellisation and immunoreactivities of dimeric beta-caseins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1775-83 pubmed publisher
  7. Braunschweig M. Associations between 2 paternal casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of Swiss Fleckvieh cattle. J Appl Genet. 2008;49:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the paternal CSN2 A1 and A2 alleles and milk protein YDs within sires but not milk and fat YDs indicate an interaction, which might be a consequence of CSN2 ..
  8. Heegaard C, Rasmussen L, Andreasen P. The plasminogen activation system in bovine milk: differential localization of tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase in milk fractions is caused by binding to casein and urokinase receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1222:45-55 pubmed
    ..R. and Tritsch, G.L. (1993) Fibrinolysis 7, 229-236), and the observed t-PA/casein binding suggests that the casein micelle, which also contains plasminogen, may serve as a matrix for t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in milk. ..
  9. Jiang J, Zhang X, Chen Y, Wu Y, Zhou Z, Chang Z, et al. Activation of DegP chaperone-protease via formation of large cage-like oligomers upon binding to substrate proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11939-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Such interactions simultaneously eliminate the inhibitory effects of the PDZ2 domain. Additionally, both DegP oligomers were also observed in extracts of E. coli cells, strongly implicating their physiological importance. ..
  10. Cieslińska A, Kostyra E, Kostyra H, Oleński K, Fiedorowicz E, Kaminski S. Milk from cows of different ?-casein genotypes as a source of ?-casomorphin-7. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results suggest a possibility to provide a new nutritional factor for milk quality based on the content of ?-casomorphin-7 liberated in vivo from milk digested by a mixture of the gastrointestinal enzymes. ..
  11. Merdanovic M, Mamant N, Meltzer M, Poepsel S, Auckenthaler A, Melgaard R, et al. Determinants of structural and functional plasticity of a widely conserved protease chaperone complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:837-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these data for the mechanism of protein quality control are discussed. ..
  12. Shamay A, Zeelon E, Ghez Z, Cohen N, Mackinlay A, Gertler A. Inhibition of casein and fat synthesis and alpha-lactalbumin secretion by progesterone in explants from bovine lactating mammary glands. J Endocrinol. 1987;113:81-8 pubmed
    ..The inhibition by progesterone did not result from a decrease in explant viability, as determined by glucose uptake. ..
  13. Kim J, Yu J, Bag J, Bakovic M, Cant J. Translation attenuation via 3' terminal codon usage in bovine csn1s2 is responsible for the difference in αs2- and β-casein profile in milk. RNA Biol. 2015;12:354-67 pubmed publisher
    ..approximately 25% of that of β-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different...
  14. Baev A, Smirnov I, Gorodetskiĭ S. [Primary structure of cDNA for bovine beta-casein]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 1987;21:255-65 pubmed
    ..It was determined, that cloned cDNA is related to genetic variant A1. ..
  15. Willis I, Stewart A, Caputo A, Thompson A, Mackinlay A. Construction and identification by partial nucleotide sequence analysis of bovine casein and beta-lactoglobulin cDNA clones. DNA. 1982;1:375-86 pubmed
    ..The observation that the nucleotide sequences for the serine phosphate cluster in bovine alpha s1-and rat beta-casein exhibit close homology supports the suggestion that these regions have evolved from a common primordial sequence. ..
  16. Beery K, Hood L, Patton S. Formation of casein micelles in golgi vesicles of mammary tissue. J Dairy Sci. 1971;54:911-2 pubmed
  17. Ivanov V, Kershulite D, Baev A, Akhundova A, Sulimova G. [Identification of bacterial clones that encode cow's caseins by direct immunological screening of the cDNA library]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 1985;19:955-63 pubmed
    ..Colony hybridization and DNA sequence analysis showed that clone b5 contained cDNA fragment of bovine kappa-caseins and clone h7 cDNA fragment of beta-casein. The last clone was designated pKcas beta-7. ..
  18. Yousefi R, Shchutskaya Y, Zimny J, Gaudin J, Moosavi Movahedi A, Muronetz V, et al. Chaperone-like activities of different molecular forms of beta-casein. Importance of polarity of N-terminal hydrophilic domain. Biopolymers. 2009;91:623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com. ..
  19. Moosavi Movahedi A, Rajabzadeh H, Amani M, Nourouzian D, Zare K, Hadi H, et al. Acidic residue modifications restore chaperone activity of β-casein interacting with lysozyme. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;49:616-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the enhanced chaperone activity of modified β-casein and its protective effects on lysozyme refolding. ..
  20. Trivedi M, Zhang Y, Lopez Toledano M, Clarke A, Deth R. Differential neurogenic effects of casein-derived opioid peptides on neuronal stem cells: implications for redox-based epigenetic changes. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;37:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that food-derived opioid peptides and morphine regulated neurogenesis and differentiation of NSCs through changes in the redox state and epigenetic regulation. ..
  21. Stewart A, Bonsing J, Beattie C, Shah F, Willis I, Mackinlay A. Complete nucleotide sequences of bovine alpha S2- and beta-casein cDNAs: comparisons with related sequences in other species. Mol Biol Evol. 1987;4:231-41 pubmed
    ..The contrasting evolutionary histories of the alpha- and beta-casein coding sequences correlate with the distinctive functions of these proteins in the casein micelle system in milk. ..
  22. Wu S, Kim J, Hancock W, Karger B. Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA): a new and sensitive LC-MS platform for high sequence coverage of complex proteins with extensive post-translational modifications-comprehensive analysis of beta-casein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EG. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:1155-70 pubmed
    ..In summary, the combination of digestion strategy, high-performance separation, and the hybrid LTQ-FTMS instrument enables comprehensive characterization of large proteins, including posttranslational modifications. ..
  23. Grosclaude F, Mahe M, Mercier J, Ribadeau Dumas B. [Characterization of genetic variants of a S1 and bovine caseins]. Eur J Biochem. 1972;26:328-37 pubmed
  24. Jimenez Flores R, Kang Y, Richardson T. Cloning and sequence analysis of bovine beta-casein cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;142:617-21 pubmed
    ..When the nucleotide sequence of bovine beta-casein cDNA is compared to rat beta-casein cDNA (5), a high degree of homology is observed in the first 100 nt corresponding to the signal peptide of the pre-beta-caseins. ..
  25. Keys J, Cifrian E, Guidry A, Farrell H. Bovine mammary explant versus primary cell cultures: effect of bovine somatotropin and insulin-like growth factor-I on DNA content and protein synthesis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1997;33:206-11 pubmed
    Cellular DNA, milk protein content, and protein secretion by bovine mammary explants were compared to cultures of confluent and growing primary bovine mammary secretory cells over 4 d...
  26. Carles C, Huet J, Ribadeau Dumas B. A new strategy for primary structure determination of proteins: application to bovine beta-casein. FEBS Lett. 1988;229:265-72 pubmed
    ..The method was successfully applied to bovine beta-casein (209 residues) which was completely resequenced with only 239 Edman cycles. ..
  27. Han S, Shin Y, Byun H. Biochemical, molecular and physiological characterization of a new beta-casein variant detected in Korean cattle. Anim Genet. 2000;31:49-51 pubmed
    ..Using extensive Korean Bos taurus pedigrees, we confirmed that beta-CN H was controlled by a codominant allele. ..
  28. Riley L, Williamson P, Wynn P, Sheehy P. Lactoferrin decreases primary bovine mammary epithelial cell viability and casein expression. J Dairy Res. 2008;75:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammospheres capable of milk protein expression were formed by culturing primary BMEC on extracellular matrix in the presence of lactogenic hormones...
  29. Shimizu T, Ganzorig K, Miyamoto A, Ishii T, Urashima T, Fukuda K. A naturally occurring ?(s1)-casein-derived peptide in bovine milk inhibits apoptosis of granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions. J Pept Sci. 2014;20:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. ..
  30. Gorodetskiĭ S, Tkach T, Kapelinskaia T. [The casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characteristics of the beta-casein gene]. Genetika. 1988;24:791-802 pubmed
    ..The regulatory region of the casein gene contains two different TATA signals flanking the duplication site in the promoter region. ..
  31. Hernandez L, Limesand S, Collier J, Horseman N, Collier R. The bovine mammary gland expresses multiple functional isoforms of serotonin receptors. J Endocrinol. 2009;203:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Serotonin suppressed milk protein mRNA expression (alpha-lactalbumin and beta-casein mRNA) in lactogen-treated primary bovine mammary epithelial ..
  32. Ivanov V, Kershulite D, Bayev A, Akhundova A, Sulimova G, Judinkova E, et al. Identification of bacterial clones encoding bovine caseins by direct immunological screening of the cDNA library. Gene. 1984;32:381-8 pubmed
  33. Singh N, D Souza A, Cholleti A, Sastry G, Bose K. Dual regulatory switch confers tighter control on HtrA2 proteolytic activity. FEBS J. 2014;281:2456-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding this complex rheostatic dual switch mechanism offers an opportunity for targeting various disease conditions with tailored site-specific effector molecules. ..
  34. Nilsen H, Olsen H, Hayes B, Sehested E, Svendsen M, Nome T, et al. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in Norwegian Red cattle. Genet Sel Evol. 2009;41:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses suggest separation of the casein cluster into two haplotype blocks, one consisting of the CSN1S1, CSN2 and CSN1S2 genes and another one consisting of the CSN3 gene...
  35. Gray C, Ward R, Karran E, Turconi S, Rowles A, Viglienghi D, et al. Characterization of human HtrA2, a novel serine protease involved in the mammalian cellular stress response. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:5699-710 pubmed
  36. Moitzi C, Portnaya I, Glatter O, Ramon O, Danino D. Effect of temperature on self-assembly of bovine beta-casein above and below isoelectric pH. Structural analysis by cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Langmuir. 2008;24:3020-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Ohashi A, Murata E, Yamamoto K, Majima E, Sano E, Le Q, et al. New functions of lactoferrin and beta-casein in mammalian milk as cysteine protease inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:98-103 pubmed
    ..Lactoferrin and beta-casein in milk might play a role in antiseptic and antiinfectious functions due to cysteine protease inhibition of bacteria and viruses. ..
  38. Miluchová M, Gábor M, Trakovická A. Analysis of Slovak Spotted breed for bovine beta casein A1 variant as risk factor for human health. Acta Biochim Pol. 2013;60:799-801 pubmed
    The goal of work was identification A1 variant of bovine beta casein which involves ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in human...
  39. Giamas G, Hirner H, Shoshiashvili L, Grothey A, Gessert S, Kuhl M, et al. Phosphorylation of CK1delta: identification of Ser370 as the major phosphorylation site targeted by PKA in vitro and in vivo. Biochem J. 2007;406:389-98 pubmed
    ..In summary, we conclude that PKA phosphorylates CK1delta, predominantly at Ser370 in vitro and in vivo, and that site-specific phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA plays an important role in modulating CK1delta-dependent processes. ..
  40. Tang Z, Luca M, Taggart Murphy L, Portillio J, Chang C, Guven A, et al. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:2071-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle. ..
  41. Krojer T, Sawa J, Huber R, Clausen T. HtrA proteases have a conserved activation mechanism that can be triggered by distinct molecular cues. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:844-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for protein quality control and regulation of oligomeric enzymes are discussed. ..
  42. Ribadeau Dumas B, Brignon G, Grosclaude F, Mercier J. [Primary structure of bovine beta casein. Complete sequence]. Eur J Biochem. 1972;25:505-14 pubmed
  43. Gorodetsky S, Tkach T, Kapelinskaya T. Isolation and characterization of the Bos taurus beta-casein gene. Gene. 1988;66:87-96 pubmed
    ..The regulatory region contains two different TATA signals and a repeat sequence between them. ..
  44. Simons G, van den Heuvel W, Reynen T, Frijters A, Rutten G, Slangen C, et al. Overproduction of bovine beta-casein in Escherichia coli and engineering of its main chymosin cleavage site. Protein Eng. 1993;6:763-70 pubmed
    ..The beta-casein cDNA was altered to change the main chymosin cleavage site in beta-casein at position 192-193 in two ways, namely from Leu-Tyr to Pro-Pro and to Leu-stop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  45. Visser S, Slangen C, Lagerwerf F, van Dongen W, Haverkamp J. Identification of a new genetic variant of bovine beta-casein using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis. J Chromatogr A. 1995;711:141-50 pubmed
    ..In accordance with internationally accepted guidelines for the nomenclature of milk proteins, the new genetic variant has been named beta-casein F-5P. ..
  46. Tagliabracci V, Engel J, Wen J, Wiley S, Worby C, Kinch L, et al. Secreted kinase phosphorylates extracellular proteins that regulate biomineralization. Science. 2012;336:1150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, mutations in Fam20C cause an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in humans known as Raine syndrome. Fam20C is thus a protein kinase dedicated to the phosphorylation of extracellular proteins...
  47. Hallen E, Wedholm A, Andren A, Lunden A. Effect of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on concentration of milk protein variants. J Anim Breed Genet. 2008;125:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed milk protein composition and allele-specific expression of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin proteins in milk ..
  48. Qi P, Wickham E, Piotrowski E, Fagerquist C, Farrell H. Implication of C-terminal deletion on the structure and stability of bovine beta-casein. Protein J. 2005;24:431-44 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated clearly that the tail peptide beta-CN-(f193-209) is important in maintaining the hydrophobic core of beta-CN but the residual association observed argues for a minor role for other sites as well. ..