Gene Symbol: COX4I1
Description: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1
Alias: COX4, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrial, COX IV-1, cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide IV, cytochrome c oxydase subunit 4
Species: cow
Products:     COX4I1

Top Publications

  1. Popovic D, Stuchebrukhov A. Coupled electron and proton transfer reactions during the O?E transition in bovine cytochrome c oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..All four electrometric phases are discussed in the light of the obtained results, providing a robust support for the His291 model of proton pumping in CcO. ..
  2. Yoshikawa S, Muramoto K, Shinzawa Itoh K, Mochizuki M. Structural studies on bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These functions of the pathway have been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of bovine CcO expressed in HeLa cells...
  3. Tsukihara T, Aoyama H, Yamashita E, Tomizaki T, Yamaguchi H, Shinzawa Itoh K, et al. The whole structure of the 13-subunit oxidized cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A. Science. 1996;272:1136-44 pubmed
    ..Possible channels for chemical protons to produce H2O, for removing the produced water, and for O2, respectively, were identified. ..
  4. Sacher R, Buse G, Steffens G. Studies on cytochrome c oxidase, V. Polypeptide IV: alignment and amino acid sequences on cyanogen bromide fragments. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1979;360:1377-83 pubmed
    ..The isolation and sequencing of the fragments of this membrane protein are discussed. ..
  5. Bachman N, Lomax M, Grossman L. Two bovine genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV: a processed pseudogene and an expressed gene. Gene. 1987;55:219-29 pubmed
  6. Bachman N. Isolation and characterization of the functional gene encoding bovine cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Gene. 1995;162:313-8 pubmed
    The structure and expression of the gene (COX4) encoding bovine cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) was studied in order to identify conserved DNA sequence elements involved in the control of mammalian nuclear respiratory genes...
  7. Tomizaki T, Yamashita E, Yamaguchi H, Aoyama H, Tsukihara T, Shinzawa Itoh K, et al. Structure analysis of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999;55:31-45 pubmed
    ..The hierarchy of the structural organization of the enzyme complex has been proposed on the basis of intersubunit interactions. ..
  8. Konstantinov A. Cytochrome c oxidase: Intermediates of the catalytic cycle and their energy-coupled interconversion. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:630-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4) Protonmotive mechanism of cytochrome oxidase may vary notably for the different single-electron steps in the catalytic cycle. ..
  9. Durham B, Millett F. Design of photoactive ruthenium complexes to study electron transfer and proton pumping in cytochrome oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:567-74 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sacher R, Steffens G, Buse G. Studies on cytochrome c oxidase, VI. Polypeptide IV. the complete primary structure. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1979;360:1385-92 pubmed
    ..Additional specific contacts may result from pairwise formation of salt bridges between ionic groups of the protein and the phospholipids. The function of this component of the terminal oxidase is yet unknown. ..
  2. Capitanio N, Palese L, Capitanio G, Martino P, Richter O, Ludwig B, et al. Allosteric interactions and proton conducting pathways in proton pumping aa(3) oxidases: heme a as a key coupling element. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect appears to result from alteration of the structural/functional device, closer to the positive, opposite (P) surface, which separates pumped protons from those consumed in the reduction of O(2) to 2 H(2)O...
  3. Huttemann M, Kadenbach B, Grossman L. Mammalian subunit IV isoforms of cytochrome c oxidase. Gene. 2001;267:111-23 pubmed
    ..The formation of a cysteine bond and the implications for function of these sequence differences for subunit IV, which plays a pivotal role in COX regulation, are discussed. ..
  4. Fei M, Yamashita E, Inoue N, Yao M, Yamaguchi H, Tsukihara T, et al. X-ray structure of azide-bound fully oxidized cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart at 2.9 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2000;56:529-35 pubmed
    ..1995), Nature (London), 376, 660-669], which lacks one of the three imidazole ligands to Cu(B). ..
  5. Kim Y, Hummer G. Proton-pumping mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase: a kinetic master-equation approach. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The design principles identified here for cytochrome c oxidase provide a blueprint for novel biology-inspired fuel cells, and the master-equation formulation should prove useful also for other molecular machines. . ..
  6. Ogura T. Resonance Raman applications in investigations of cytochrome c oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon is due either to the pH effect of mitochondrial matrix, the effect of ?pH and/or ?? across the membrane, or the effect of interactions with other membrane components and/or phospholipids. ..
  7. Lomax M, Bachman N, Nasoff M, Caruthers M, Grossman L. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for bovine cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6295-9 pubmed
  8. Luo F, Shinzawa Itoh K, Hagimoto K, Shimada A, Shimada S, Yamashita E, et al. Structure of bovine cytochrome c oxidase crystallized at a neutral pH using a fluorinated detergent. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017;73:416-422 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of pH on the molecular surface is likely to contribute to the pH dependency of the aerobic oxidation of ferrocytochrome c. ..
  9. EINARSDOTTIR O, Funatogawa C, Soulimane T, Szundi I. Kinetic studies of the reactions of O(2) and NO with reduced Thermus thermophilus ba(3) and bovine aa(3) using photolabile carriers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory Oxidases. ..