Gene Symbol: zen-4
Description: Kinesin-like protein
Alias: Kinesin-like protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Severson A, Hamill D, Carter J, Schumacher J, Bowerman B. The aurora-related kinase AIR-2 recruits ZEN-4/CeMKLP1 to the mitotic spindle at metaphase and is required for cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1162-71 pubmed
    ..AIR-2 has two functions during mitosis: one in chromosome segregation, and a second, independent function in cytokinesis through ZEN-4. AIR-2 and ZEN-4 may act in parallel to a second pathway that includes CYK-1. ..
  2. Mishima M, Kaitna S, Glotzer M. Central spindle assembly and cytokinesis require a kinesin-like protein/RhoGAP complex with microtubule bundling activity. Dev Cell. 2002;2:41-54 pubmed
    ..Biochemical studies indicate that this complex, named centralspindlin, is a heterotetramer. Centralspindlin, but not its individual components, strongly promotes microtubule bundling in vitro. ..
  3. Raich W, Moran A, Rothman J, Hardin J. Cytokinesis and midzone microtubule organization in Caenorhabditis elegans require the kinesin-like protein ZEN-4. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:2037-49 pubmed
    ..We propose that ZEN-4 directly cross-links the midzone microtubules and suggest that these microtubules are required for the completion of cytokinesis. ..
  4. Hizlan D, Mishima M, Tittmann P, Gross H, Glotzer M, Hoenger A. Structural analysis of the ZEN-4/CeMKLP1 motor domain and its interaction with microtubules. J Struct Biol. 2006;153:73-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we investigated the location, structure, and function of a highly conserved extension of approximately 50 residues unique to the Kinesin-6 subfamily, located in the motor core loop6/beta4 region. ..
  5. Sugioka K, Mizumoto K, Sawa H. Wnt regulates spindle asymmetry to generate asymmetric nuclear ?-catenin in C. elegans. Cell. 2011;146:942-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, laser manipulation of the spindles rescued defects in nuclear POP-1 asymmetry in wnt mutants. Our results reveal a mechanism in which the nuclear localization of proteins is regulated through the modulation of microtubules. ..
  6. Hardin J, King R, Thomas Virnig C, Raich W. Zygotic loss of ZEN-4/MKLP1 results in disruption of epidermal morphogenesis in the C. elegans embryo. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:830-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Bringmann H, Hyman A. A cytokinesis furrow is positioned by two consecutive signals. Nature. 2005;436:731-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the position of the cytokinesis furrow is specified by two consecutive furrowing activities. ..
  8. Roy S, Clayton J, Holmen J, Beltz E, Saito R. Control of Cdc14 activity coordinates cell cycle and development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mech Dev. 2011;128:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these mechanisms collaborate to restrict the activity of cdc-14 as central components of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory network to coordinate cell-cycle progression with development. ..
  9. Davies T, Kodera N, Kaminski Schierle G, Rees E, Erdelyi M, Kaminski C, et al. CYK4 promotes antiparallel microtubule bundling by optimizing MKLP1 neck conformation. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002121 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides insights into the microtubule bundling during cytokinesis and into the working mechanisms of the kinesins with non-canonical neck structures. ..

More Information


  1. Verbrugghe K, White J. SPD-1 is required for the formation of the spindle midzone but is not essential for the completion of cytokinesis in C. elegans embryos. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1755-60 pubmed
    ..Also, it can localize to the midzone when other midzone components are depleted, suggesting that SPD-1 may play an early role in the pathway of midzone assembly. ..
  2. White E, Raghuraman H, Perozo E, Glotzer M. Binding of the CYK-4 subunit of the centralspindlin complex induces a large scale conformational change in the kinesin subunit. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..CYK-4 binding decreases the rate of ZEN-4-mediated microtubule gliding. These results constrain models for the molecular organization of centralspindlin. ..
  3. Morita K, Hirono K, Han M. The Caenorhabditis elegans ect-2 RhoGEF gene regulates cytokinesis and migration of epidermal P cells. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1163-8 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which ECT-2GEF not only activates RHO-1 for P-cell cytokinesis, but also collaborates with UNC-73GEF and at least two Rac proteins to regulate P-cell migration. ..
  4. Dumont J, Oegema K, Desai A. A kinetochore-independent mechanism drives anaphase chromosome separation during acentrosomal meiosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:894-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that separation is controlled by a meiosis-specific chromosomal domain to coordinate cohesin removal and chromosome segregation. ..
  5. Portereiko M, Saam J, Mango S. ZEN-4/MKLP1 is required to polarize the foregut epithelium. Curr Biol. 2004;14:932-41 pubmed
    ..Microtubules and actin are disorganized in zen-4 mutants compared to the wild-type. We suggest that ZEN-4/MKLP1 and CYK-4/RhoGAP regulate an early step in epithelial polarization that is required to establish the apical domain and CeAJ. ..
  6. Romano A, Guse A, Krascenicova I, Schnabel H, Schnabel R, Glotzer M. CSC-1: a subunit of the Aurora B kinase complex that binds to the survivin-like protein BIR-1 and the incenp-like protein ICP-1. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:229-36 pubmed
    ..ICP-1 dramatically stimulates AIR-2 kinase activity. This activity is not stimulated by CSC-1/BIR-1, suggesting that these two subunits function as targeting subunits for AIR-2 kinase. ..
  7. Gruneberg U, Glotzer M, Gartner A, Nigg E. The CeCDC-14 phosphatase is required for cytokinesis in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:901-14 pubmed
    ..These findings identify the CDC14 phosphatase as an important regulator of central spindle formation and cytokinesis in a metazoan organism. ..
  8. Zhou K, Rolls M, Hanna Rose W. A postmitotic function and distinct localization mechanism for centralspindlin at a stable intercellular bridge. Dev Biol. 2013;376:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that centralspindlin function at the rachis bridge involves ZEN-4 action on the microtubules as opposed to the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton mediated by CYK-4 during cytokinesis. ..
  9. Lee K, Esmaeili B, Zealley B, Mishima M. Direct interaction between centralspindlin and PRC1 reinforces mechanical resilience of the central spindle. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7290 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism involves the direct interaction of two different types of conserved microtubule bundlers that are crucial for central spindle formation, PRC1 and centralspindlin. ..
  10. Mishima M, Pavicic V, Gruneberg U, Nigg E, Glotzer M. Cell cycle regulation of central spindle assembly. Nature. 2004;430:908-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphoregulation of the motor domain of MKLP1 kinesin ensures that central spindle assembly occurs at the appropriate time in the cell cycle and maintains genomic stability. ..
  11. Basant A, Lekomtsev S, Tse Y, Zhang D, Longhini K, Petronczki M, et al. Aurora B kinase promotes cytokinesis by inducing centralspindlin oligomers that associate with the plasma membrane. Dev Cell. 2015;33:204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, CPC-directed centralspindlin oligomerization during anaphase induces contractile ring assembly at the membrane. ..