Gene Symbol: unc-104
Description: Kinesin-like protein unc-104
Alias: Kinesin-like protein unc-104
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     unc-104

Top Publications

  1. Otsuka A, Jeyaprakash A, Garcia Anoveros J, Tang L, Fisk G, Hartshorne T, et al. The C. elegans unc-104 gene encodes a putative kinesin heavy chain-like protein. Neuron. 1991;6:113-22 pubmed
    ..Although the primary sequence relatedness to kinesin is weak in the remainder of the molecule, the predicted secondary structure and regional isoelectric points are similar to kinesin heavy chain. ..
  2. Hall D, Hedgecock E. Kinesin-related gene unc-104 is required for axonal transport of synaptic vesicles in C. elegans. Cell. 1991;65:837-47 pubmed
    ..Other membrane-bounded organelles are transported normally. ..
  3. Kumar J, Choudhary B, Metpally R, Zheng Q, Nonet M, Ramanathan S, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans Kinesin-3 motor UNC-104/KIF1A is degraded upon loss of specific binding to cargo. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001200 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that inability to bind cargo can target motors for degradation. In view of the observed degradation of the motor in synaptic regions, this further suggests that UNC-104 may get degraded at synapses upon release of cargo. ..
  4. Klopfenstein D, Vale R. The lipid binding pleckstrin homology domain in UNC-104 kinesin is necessary for synaptic vesicle transport in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3729-39 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a critical role for PI(4,5)P(2) binding in UNC-104-mediated axonal transport and shows that the cargo-binding properties of the distal PH domain can affect motor output. ..
  5. Zhou H, Brust Mascher I, Scholey J. Direct visualization of the movement of the monomeric axonal transport motor UNC-104 along neuronal processes in living Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3749-55 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first direct visualization and analysis of the movement of specifically labeled microtubule motor proteins along axons in vivo. ..
  6. Nguyen M, Alfonso A, Johnson C, Rand J. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants resistant to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Genetics. 1995;140:527-35 pubmed
    ..Measurements of acetylcholine levels in these mutants suggest that some of the genes are involved in presynaptic functions...
  7. Hsu C, Moncaleano J, Wagner O. Sub-cellular distribution of UNC-104(KIF1A) upon binding to adaptors as UNC-16(JIP3), DNC-1(DCTN1/Glued) and SYD-2(Liprin-?) in C. elegans neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;176:39-52 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, if UNC-104 is bound to SYD-2 we identify motor populations mostly along axons. Therefore, these three adaptors inherit different functions in steering the motor to specific sub-cellular locations in the neuron. ..
  8. Pierce D, Hom Booher N, Otsuka A, Vale R. Single-molecule behavior of monomeric and heteromeric kinesins. Biochemistry. 1999;38:5412-21 pubmed
    ..Conventional kinesin's unusual processivity may be required for efficient transport of protein complexes that cannot carry multiple motors. ..
  9. Wagner O, Esposito A, Köhler B, Chen C, Shen C, Wu G, et al. Synaptic scaffolding protein SYD-2 clusters and activates kinesin-3 UNC-104 in C. elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data present a kinesin scaffolding protein that controls both motor clustering along axons and motor motility, resulting in reduced cargo transport efficiency upon loss of interaction. ..

More Information


  1. Lickteig K, Duerr J, Frisby D, Hall D, Rand J, Miller D. Regulation of neurotransmitter vesicles by the homeodomain protein UNC-4 and its transcriptional corepressor UNC-37/groucho in Caenorhabditis elegans cholinergic motor neurons. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2001-14 pubmed
    ..The temporal correlation of these events may mean that a common unc-4-dependent mechanism controls both the specificity of synaptic inputs as well as the strength of synaptic outputs for these motor neurons. ..
  2. Troulinaki K, Tavernarakis N. Endocytosis and intracellular trafficking contribute to necrotic neurodegeneration in C. elegans. EMBO J. 2012;31:654-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a prominent role for endocytosis in cellular destruction during neurodegeneration, which is likely conserved in metazoans. ..
  3. Meng L, Mulcahy B, Cook S, Neubauer M, Wan A, Jin Y, et al. The Cell Death Pathway Regulates Synapse Elimination through Cleavage of Gelsolin in Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that activation of the CED pathway contributes to selective elimination of synapses through disassembly of the actin filament network. ..
  4. Al Bassam J, Roger B, Halpain S, Milligan R. Analysis of the weak interactions of ADP-Unc104 and ADP-kinesin with microtubules and their inhibition by MAP2c. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2007;64:377-89 pubmed
    ..This is reminiscent of the defects we have observed in Unc104 and kinesin mutants in which the positively charged residues in K-loop and neck coiled-coil domains were removed. ..
  5. Mörck C, Axäng C, Pilon M. A genetic analysis of axon guidance in the C elegans pharynx. Dev Biol. 2003;260:158-75 pubmed
    ..We isolated five novel mutants in a screen for worms exhibiting abnormal morphology of the M2 neurons. These mutants define a new gene class designated mnm (M neuron morphology abnormal). ..
  6. Tien N, Wu G, Hsu C, Chang C, Wagner O. Tau/PTL-1 associates with kinesin-3 KIF1A/UNC-104 and affects the motor's motility characteristics in C. elegans neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43:495-506 pubmed publisher
  7. Li L, Lei H, Arey R, Li P, Liu J, Murphy C, et al. The Neuronal Kinesin UNC-104/KIF1A Is a Key Regulator of Synaptic Aging and Insulin Signaling-Regulated Memory. Curr Biol. 2016;26:605-15 pubmed publisher
  8. Zahn T, Angleson J, MacMorris M, Domke E, Hutton J, Schwartz C, et al. Dense core vesicle dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons and the role of kinesin UNC-104. Traffic. 2004;5:544-59 pubmed
    ..Study of a number of candidate mutants identified the kinesin UNC-104 (KIF1A) as the microtubule motor that is specifically responsible for anterograde axonal transport of DCVs at velocities of 1.6 microm/s-2.7 microm/s. ..
  9. Goodwin P, Sasaki J, Juo P. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates the polarized trafficking of neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8158-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which CDK-5 regulates DCV polarity by both promoting DCV trafficking in axons and preventing dynein-dependent DCV trafficking into dendrites. ..
  10. Yue Y, Sheng Y, Zhang H, Yu Y, Huo L, Feng W, et al. The CC1-FHA dimer is essential for KIF1A-mediated axonal transport of synaptic vesicles in C. elegans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, together with previous structural and biochemical studies, the in vivo data presented in this study firmly establish the essential role of the CC1-FHA dimer for KIF1A-mediated neuronal transport. ..
  11. Wu G, Muthaiyan Shanmugam M, Bhan P, Huang Y, Wagner O. Identification and Characterization of LIN-2(CASK) as a Regulator of Kinesin-3 UNC-104(KIF1A) Motility and Clustering in Neurons. Traffic. 2016;17:891-907 pubmed publisher
    ..From our study, we conclude that LIN-2 and SYD-2 act in a functional complex to regulate the motor with LIN-2 being the more prominent activator. ..
  12. Stavoe A, Hill S, Hall D, COLON RAMOS D. KIF1A/UNC-104 Transports ATG-9 to Regulate Neurodevelopment and Autophagy at Synapses. Dev Cell. 2016;38:171-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that autophagy is spatially regulated in neurons through the transport of ATG-9 by KIF1A/UNC-104 to regulate neurodevelopment. ..
  13. Niwa S, Lipton D, Morikawa M, Zhao C, Hirokawa N, Lu H, et al. Autoinhibition of a Neuronal Kinesin UNC-104/KIF1A Regulates the Size and Density of Synapses. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2129-2141 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the autoinhibitory mechanism is used to regulate the distribution of transport cargoes and is important for synaptogenesis in vivo. ..
  14. Xu Y, Ren X, Quinn C, Wadsworth W. Axon response to guidance cues is stimulated by acetylcholine in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2011;189:899-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that for specific neurons acetylcholine plays an important role in vivo as a modulator of axon responses to guidance cues. ..
  15. Zheng Q, Ahlawat S, Schaefer A, Mahoney T, Koushika S, Nonet M. The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004644 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. ..
  16. Park M, Watanabe S, Poon V, Ou C, Jorgensen E, Shen K. CYY-1/cyclin Y and CDK-5 differentially regulate synapse elimination and formation for rewiring neural circuits. Neuron. 2011;70:742-57 pubmed publisher
  17. Al Bassam J, Cui Y, Klopfenstein D, Carragher B, Vale R, Milligan R. Distinct conformations of the kinesin Unc104 neck regulate a monomer to dimer motor transition. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:743-53 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the Unc104 neck regulates motility by switching from a self-folded, repressed state to a dimerized conformation that can support fast processive movement. ..
  18. Gally C, Bessereau J. GABA is dispensable for the formation of junctional GABA receptor clusters in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2003;23:2591-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, at GABAergic neuromuscular junctions, GABA receptor clustering requires nerve-muscle interaction but not GABA neurotransmission. ..
  19. Jacob T, Kaplan J. The EGL-21 carboxypeptidase E facilitates acetylcholine release at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2003;23:2122-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that egl-21 CPE and egl-3 PC2 process endogenous neuropeptides that facilitate acetylcholine release at C. elegans NMJs. ..