Gene Symbol: tra-2
Description: Sex-determining transformer protein 2;TRAnsformer: XX animals transformed into males
Alias: Sex-determining transformer protein 2;TRAnsformer: XX animals transformed into males
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     tra-2

Top Publications

  1. Wang S, Kimble J. The TRA-1 transcription factor binds TRA-2 to regulate sexual fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO J. 2001;20:1363-72 pubmed
    ..The conservation of the TRA-1- TRA-2 interaction underscores its importance in sex determination. ..
  2. Hodgkin J, Brenner S. Mutations causing transformation of sexual phenotype in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1977;86:275-87 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that these genes are actually involved in hermaphrodite development and have no role in male development. ..
  3. Schedl T, Kimble J. fog-2, a germ-line-specific sex determination gene required for hermaphrodite spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1988;119:43-61 pubmed
  4. Lum D, Kuwabara P, Zarkower D, Spence A. Direct protein-protein interaction between the intracellular domain of TRA-2 and the transcription factor TRA-1A modulates feminizing activity in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3153-65 pubmed
    ..We further show that tagged derivatives of the intracellular domain of TRA-2 localize to the nucleus, supporting the hypothesis that this domain is capable of modulating TRA-1A activity in a manner reminiscent of Notch and Su(H). ..
  5. Kuersten S, Segal S, Verheyden J, LaMartina S, Goodwin E. NXF-2, REF-1, and REF-2 affect the choice of nuclear export pathway for tra-2 mRNA in C. elegans. Mol Cell. 2004;14:599-610 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, choice of proper export pathway affects tra-2 translational control. Therefore, tra-2 mRNA export is highly regulated and plays an important role in development by regulating the activity of tra-2 mRNA in the cytoplasm. ..
  6. Mapes J, Chen J, Yu J, Xue D. Somatic sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by SUP-26 repression of tra-2 translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18022-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide further insight into how mRNA-binding factors repress translation and modulate sexual development in different tissues of C. elegans. ..
  7. Mehra A, Gaudet J, Heck L, Kuwabara P, Spence A. Negative regulation of male development in Caenorhabditis elegans by a protein-protein interaction between TRA-2A and FEM-3. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1453-63 pubmed
    ..When the balance favors FEM-3, it acts through or with the other FEM proteins to promote male cell fates. ..
  8. Haag E, Wang S, Kimble J. Rapid coevolution of the nematode sex-determining genes fem-3 and tra-2. Curr Biol. 2002;12:2035-41 pubmed
    ..Extrapolation of this result to larger phylogenetic scales helps explain the dissimilarity of the sex determination systems across phyla. ..
  9. Ciosk R, DePalma M, Priess J. ATX-2, the C. elegans ortholog of ataxin 2, functions in translational regulation in the germline. Development. 2004;131:4831-41 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that ATX-2 functions in translational regulation that is mediated by GLD-1 and MEX-3 proteins. ..

More Information


  1. Schumacher B, Hanazawa M, Lee M, Nayak S, Volkmann K, Hofmann E, et al. Translational repression of C. elegans p53 by GLD-1 regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Cell. 2005;120:357-68 pubmed
    ..This study reveals that the regulation of cep-1/p53 translation influences DNA damage-induced apoptosis and demonstrates the physiological importance of this mechanism. ..
  2. Kuwabara P, Okkema P, Kimble J. tra-2 encodes a membrane protein and may mediate cell communication in the Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 1992;3:461-73 pubmed
    ..If so, then regulation of sexual fate by her-1 and tra-2 might provide a general model for the coordination of groups of cells to follow a single cell fate...
  3. Sokol S, Kuwabara P. Proteolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination: cleavage of TRA-2A by TRA-3. Genes Dev. 2000;14:901-6 pubmed
    ..Cleavage of TRA-2A by TRA-3 generates a peptide predicted to have feminizing activity. These results indicate that proteolysis regulated by calcium may control some aspects of sexual cell fate in C. elegans. ..
  4. Detwiler M, Reuben M, Li X, Rogers E, Lin R. Two zinc finger proteins, OMA-1 and OMA-2, are redundantly required for oocyte maturation in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2001;1:187-99 pubmed
    ..The Oma prophase arrest is released by inactivation of a MYT-1-like kinase, suggesting that OMA-1 and OMA-2 function upstream of MYT-1 as positive regulators of prophase progression during meiotic maturation. ..
  5. Hamaoka B, Dann C, Geisbrecht B, Leahy D. Crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HER-1 and characterization of the interaction between HER-1 and TRA-2A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11673-8 pubmed
  6. Shimada M, Kanematsu K, Tanaka K, Yokosawa H, Kawahara H. Proteasomal ubiquitin receptor RPN-10 controls sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:5356-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, TRA-2 proteins accumulated in rpn-10-defective worms. Our results show that the RPN-10-mediated ubiquitin pathway is indispensable for control of the TRA-2-mediated sex-determining pathway. ..
  7. Graves L, Segal S, Goodwin E. TRA-1 regulates the cellular distribution of the tra-2 mRNA in C. elegans. Nature. 1999;399:802-5 pubmed
    ..The fact that TRA-1 is part of a conserved family of proteins raises the possibility that GLI family members are both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. ..