Gene Symbol: sek-1
Description: Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase sek-1
Alias: Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase sek-1
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Inoue H, Hisamoto N, An J, Oliveira R, Nishida E, Blackwell T, et al. The C. elegans p38 MAPK pathway regulates nuclear localization of the transcription factor SKN-1 in oxidative stress response. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2278-83 pubmed
    ..These results delineate the C. elegans p38 MAPK signaling pathway leading to the nucleus that responds to oxidative stress. ..
  2. Kim D, Feinbaum R, Alloing G, Emerson F, Garsin D, Inoue H, et al. A conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity. Science. 2002;297:623-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this MAP kinase signaling cassette represents an ancient feature of innate immune responses in evolutionarily diverse species. ..
  3. Huffman D, Abrami L, Sasik R, Corbeil J, van der Goot F, Aroian R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10995-1000 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that cells defend against pore-forming toxins by means of conserved MAPK pathways. ..
  4. Kurz C, Shapira M, Chen K, Baillie D, Tan M. Caenorhabditis elegans pgp-5 is involved in resistance to bacterial infection and heavy metal and its regulation requires TIR-1 and a p38 map kinase cascade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;363:438-43 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that not all the TIR-1 isoforms are necessary for nematode resistance to infection, suggesting a molecular basis for the differential response to abiotic and biotic stress. ..
  5. Nandakumar M, Tan M. Gamma-linolenic and stearidonic acids are required for basal immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans through their effects on p38 MAP kinase activity. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000273 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of p38 MAP kinase signaling in both stress and immune responses further encourages exploring the function of GLA and SDA in humans. ..
  6. Battisti J, Watson L, Naung M, Drobish A, Voronina E, Minnick M. Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans innate immune response to Coxiella burnetii. Innate Immun. 2017;23:111-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of C. elegans for studying the innate immune response against C. burnetii and could lead to discovery of novel methods for prevention and treatment of disease in humans and livestock. ..
  7. Xu A, Shi G, Liu F, Ge B. Caenorhabditis elegans mom-4 is required for the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Protein Cell. 2013;4:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans is required for P. aeruginosa resistance, but not through the regulation of DLK-1. In summary, our results indicate that different upstream MAPKKKs or MAPKKs regulate the activation of PMK-1 in response to P. Aeruginosa. ..
  8. Saul N, Pietsch K, Menzel R, Sturzenbaum S, Steinberg C. The longevity effect of tannic acid in Caenorhabditis elegans: Disposable Soma meets hormesis. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:626-35 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; This report underlines the uniqueness of TA-mediated longevity and facilitates a first glimpse into its complex mode of action. ..
  9. Pujol N, Cypowyj S, Ziegler K, Millet A, Astrain A, Goncharov A, et al. Distinct innate immune responses to infection and wounding in the C. elegans epidermis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison between these results and MAP kinase signaling in yeast gives insights into the possible origin and evolution of innate immunity. ..

More Information


  1. Pellegrino M, Nargund A, Kirienko N, Gillis R, Fiorese C, Haynes C. Mitochondrial UPR-regulated innate immunity provides resistance to pathogen infection. Nature. 2014;516:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that ATFS-1 import efficiency and the UPR(mt) is a means to detect pathogens that target mitochondria and initiate a protective innate immune response. ..
  2. Kao C, Los F, Huffman D, Wachi S, Kloft N, Husmann M, et al. Global functional analyses of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001314 pubmed publisher
  3. Fujiki K, Mizuno T, Hisamoto N, Matsumoto K. The Caenorhabditis elegans Ste20-related kinase and Rac-type small GTPase regulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway mediating the stress response. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:995-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MAX-2 and MIG-2 play a crucial role in mediating the heavy metal stress response regulated by the KGB-1 pathway. ..
  4. Salinas L, Maldonado E, Navarro R. Stress-induced germ cell apoptosis by a p53 independent pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:2129-39 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in C. elegans responses to various stresses that do not involve genotoxicity include an increase in germ cell apoptosis through the physiological pathway. ..
  5. Vashlishan A, Madison J, Dybbs M, Bai J, Sieburth D, Ch ng Q, et al. An RNAi screen identifies genes that regulate GABA synapses. Neuron. 2008;58:346-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest these conserved genes are components of signaling pathways that regulate GABA transmission and consequently may play a role in epilepsy and other cognitive or psychiatric disorders. ..
  6. Yuan Y, Cao P, Smith M, Kramp K, Huang Y, Hisamoto N, et al. Dysregulated LRRK2 signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22354 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish a critical functional link between LRRK2 and ER stress. ..
  7. Kong C, Tan M, Nathan S. Orthosiphon stamineus protects Caenorhabditis elegans against Staphylococcus aureus infection through immunomodulation. Biol Open. 2014;3:644-55 pubmed publisher
    ..stamineus leaf extract is a promising anti-infective agent that confers an advantage in survival against S. aureus infection by modulating the immune response of the infected host. ..
  8. Pietsch K, Saul N, Menzel R, Sturzenbaum S, Steinberg C. Quercetin mediated lifespan extension in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by age-1, daf-2, sek-1 and unc-43. Biogerontology. 2009;10:565-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, four genes were pinpointed to be required for the quercetin derived lifespan extension, namely age-1, daf-2, unc-43 and sek-1. The latter two have, to date, not been linked to quercetin-mediated lifespan extension. ..
  9. Anyanful A, Easley K, Benian G, Kalman D. Conditioning protects C. elegans from lethal effects of enteropathogenic E. coli by activating genes that regulate lifespan and innate immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:450-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the molecular pathways that control innate immunity and lifespan may be regulated or "conditioned" by exposure to pathogens to allow survival in noxious environments. ..
  10. Richardson C, Kooistra T, Kim D. An essential role for XBP-1 in host protection against immune activation in C. elegans. Nature. 2010;463:1092-5 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans development and indicate that an ancient, conserved role for XBP-1 may be to protect the host organism from the detrimental effects of mounting an innate immune response to microbes. ..
  11. Tanaka Hino M, Sagasti A, Hisamoto N, Kawasaki M, Nakano S, Ninomiya Tsuji J, et al. SEK-1 MAPKK mediates Ca2+ signaling to determine neuronal asymmetric development in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:56-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, the NSY-1-SEK-1-MAPK cascade is activated by Ca2+ signaling through CaMKII and establishes asymmetric cell fate decision during neuronal development. ..