Gene Symbol: pmk-1
Description: Mitogen-activated protein kinase pmk-1
Alias: Mitogen-activated protein kinase pmk-1
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Shivers R, Pagano D, Kooistra T, Richardson C, Reddy K, Whitney J, et al. Phosphorylation of the conserved transcription factor ATF-7 by PMK-1 p38 MAPK regulates innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000892 pubmed publisher
  2. Tanaka Hino M, Sagasti A, Hisamoto N, Kawasaki M, Nakano S, Ninomiya Tsuji J, et al. SEK-1 MAPKK mediates Ca2+ signaling to determine neuronal asymmetric development in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:56-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, the NSY-1-SEK-1-MAPK cascade is activated by Ca2+ signaling through CaMKII and establishes asymmetric cell fate decision during neuronal development. ..
  3. Aballay A, Drenkard E, Hilbun L, Ausubel F. Caenorhabditis elegans innate immune response triggered by Salmonella enterica requires intact LPS and is mediated by a MAPK signaling pathway. Curr Biol. 2003;13:47-52 pubmed
    ..However, a presumptive C. elegans TOLL signaling pathway did not appear to be required for the PCD response to Salmonella. These results establish a PMK-1-dependant PCD pathway as a C. elegans innate immune response to Salmonella. ..
  4. Huffman D, Abrami L, Sasik R, Corbeil J, van der Goot F, Aroian R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10995-1000 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that cells defend against pore-forming toxins by means of conserved MAPK pathways. ..
  5. Tenor J, Aballay A. A conserved Toll-like receptor is required for Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:103-9 pubmed
    ..elegans immunity. The results indicate that TOL-1 has a direct role in defence response to certain Gram-negative bacteria and indicate that part of the TLR-mediated immunity might be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  6. Kim D, Feinbaum R, Alloing G, Emerson F, Garsin D, Inoue H, et al. A conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity. Science. 2002;297:623-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this MAP kinase signaling cassette represents an ancient feature of innate immune responses in evolutionarily diverse species. ..
  7. Liberati N, Fitzgerald K, Kim D, Feinbaum R, Golenbock D, Ausubel F. Requirement for a conserved Toll/interleukin-1 resistance domain protein in the Caenorhabditis elegans immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6593-8 pubmed
    ..These data reveal the involvement of a previously uncharacterized, evolutionarily conserved TIR domain protein in innate immunity that is functionally distinct from other known TIR domain signaling adapters. ..
  8. Styer K, Singh V, Macosko E, Steele S, Bargmann C, Aballay A. Innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by neurons expressing NPR-1/GPCR. Science. 2008;322:460-4 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans, suggesting that GPCRs may participate in neural circuits that receive inputs from either pathogens or infected sites and integrate them to coordinate appropriate immune responses. ..
  9. Pujol N, Cypowyj S, Ziegler K, Millet A, Astrain A, Goncharov A, et al. Distinct innate immune responses to infection and wounding in the C. elegans epidermis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison between these results and MAP kinase signaling in yeast gives insights into the possible origin and evolution of innate immunity. ..

More Information


  1. Troemel E, Chu S, Reinke V, Lee S, Ausubel F, Kim D. p38 MAPK regulates expression of immune response genes and contributes to longevity in C. elegans. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e183 pubmed
    ..The contribution of the PMK-1 pathway to the enhanced lifespan of daf-2 mutants suggests that innate immunity is an important determinant of longevity. ..
  2. Kawasaki M, Hisamoto N, Iino Y, Yamamoto M, Ninomiya Tsuji J, Matsumoto K. A Caenorhabditis elegans JNK signal transduction pathway regulates coordinated movement via type-D GABAergic motor neurons. EMBO J. 1999;18:3604-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, ectopic expression of JKK-1 in type-D motor neurons is sufficient to rescue the movement defect. Thus, the C.elegans JNK pathway functions in type-D GABAergic motor neurons and thereby modulates coordinated locomotion. ..
  3. Inoue H, Hisamoto N, An J, Oliveira R, Nishida E, Blackwell T, et al. The C. elegans p38 MAPK pathway regulates nuclear localization of the transcription factor SKN-1 in oxidative stress response. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2278-83 pubmed
    ..These results delineate the C. elegans p38 MAPK signaling pathway leading to the nucleus that responds to oxidative stress. ..
  4. Kim D, Liberati N, Mizuno T, Inoue H, Hisamoto N, Matsumoto K, et al. Integration of Caenorhabditis elegans MAPK pathways mediating immunity and stress resistance by MEK-1 MAPK kinase and VHP-1 MAPK phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10990-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data point to mechanisms in multicellular organisms by which signals transduced by distinct MAPK pathways may be subject to physiological integration at the level of regulation of MAPK activity by MAPKKs and MKPs. ..
  5. Singh V, Aballay A. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF)-1 pathway required for Caenorhabditis elegans immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13092-7 pubmed
    ..Considering that several coinducers of HSF-1 are currently in clinical trials, this work opens the possibility that activation of HSF-1 could be used to boost immunity to treat infectious diseases and immunodeficiencies. ..
  6. Fuhrman L, Goel A, Smith J, Shianna K, Aballay A. Nucleolar proteins suppress Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity by inhibiting p53/CEP-1. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000657 pubmed publisher
    ..Since nucleoli and p53/CEP-1 are conserved, our results reveal an ancient immune mechanism by which the nucleolus may regulate immune responses against bacterial pathogens. ..
  7. Bolz D, Tenor J, Aballay A. A conserved PMK-1/p38 MAPK is required in caenorhabditis elegans tissue-specific immune response to Yersinia pestis infection. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10832-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the conserved nature of PMK-1/p38 MAPK-mediated signaling and innate immune responses, PMK-1/p38 MAPK may play a role in the immune response against Y. pestis in natural hosts. ..
  8. Pellegrino M, Nargund A, Kirienko N, Gillis R, Fiorese C, Haynes C. Mitochondrial UPR-regulated innate immunity provides resistance to pathogen infection. Nature. 2014;516:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that ATFS-1 import efficiency and the UPR(mt) is a means to detect pathogens that target mitochondria and initiate a protective innate immune response. ..
  9. Sun J, Singh V, Kajino Sakamoto R, Aballay A. Neuronal GPCR controls innate immunity by regulating noncanonical unfolded protein response genes. Science. 2011;332:729-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism by which the nervous system may sense inflammatory responses and respond by controlling stress-response pathways at the organismal level. ..
  10. Youngman M, Rogers Z, Kim D. A decline in p38 MAPK signaling underlies immunosenescence in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002082 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans in terms of the age-dependent dynamics of the PMK-1 innate immune signaling pathway, and they suggest that a cycle of intestinal tissue aging, immunosenescence, and bacterial proliferation leads to death in aging C. elegans. ..
  11. Yuan Y, Cao P, Smith M, Kramp K, Huang Y, Hisamoto N, et al. Dysregulated LRRK2 signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22354 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish a critical functional link between LRRK2 and ER stress. ..
  12. Mertenskötter A, Keshet A, Gerke P, Paul R. The p38 MAPK PMK-1 shows heat-induced nuclear translocation, supports chaperone expression, and affects the heat tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013;18:293-306 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans, possibly by a PMK-1-mediated activation of the transcription factor SKN-1 and/or an indirect or direct PMK-1-dependent activation (hyperphosphorylation) of heat-shock factor 1. ..
  13. Head B, Olaitan A, Aballay A. Role of GATA transcription factor ELT-2 and p38 MAPK PMK-1 in recovery from acute P. aeruginosa infection in C. elegans. Virulence. 2017;8:261-274 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data sheds further light on the molecular mechanisms and transcriptional programs involved in recovery from an acute bacterial infection, which provides a better understanding of the entire infectious disease process. ..
  14. Pagano D, Kingston E, Kim D. Tissue expression pattern of PMK-2 p38 MAPK is established by the miR-58 family in C. elegans. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004997 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a role for the miR-58 family in the establishment of neuronal-specific gene expression in C. elegans, and support a more general role for microRNAs in the establishment of tissue-specific gene expression. ..
  15. Kong C, Tan M, Nathan S. Orthosiphon stamineus protects Caenorhabditis elegans against Staphylococcus aureus infection through immunomodulation. Biol Open. 2014;3:644-55 pubmed publisher
    ..stamineus leaf extract is a promising anti-infective agent that confers an advantage in survival against S. aureus infection by modulating the immune response of the infected host. ..
  16. Chatterjee N, Eom H, Choi J. Effects of silver nanoparticles on oxidative DNA damage-repair as a function of p38 MAPK status: a comparative approach using human Jurkat T cells and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014;55:122-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results indicate that p38 MAPK/PMK-1 plays an important protective role in AgNP-induced oxidative DNA damage-repair which is conserved from C. elegans to humans. ..
  17. Matsunaga Y, Qadota H, Furukawa M, Choe H, Benian G. Twitchin kinase interacts with MAPKAP kinase 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:2096-111 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MAK-1 is an activator of twitchin kinase and that the p38 MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the regulation of twitchin. ..
  18. Berman K, McKay J, Avery L, Cobb M. Isolation and characterization of pmk-(1-3): three p38 homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun. 2001;4:337-44 pubmed
    ..PMK-1 and PMK-2 phosphorylated activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), indicating an activity similar to mammalian p38. When transfected into mammalian cells, these kinases, like p38, are stimulated by osmotic stresses. ..
  19. Iatsenko I, Sinha A, Rödelsperger C, Sommer R. New role for DCR-1/dicer in Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity against the highly virulent bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis DB27. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3942-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results uncover a previously unknown role for DCR-1/Dicer in C. elegans antibacterial immunity that is largely associated with miRNA processing. ..
  20. Xu A, Shi G, Liu F, Ge B. Caenorhabditis elegans mom-4 is required for the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Protein Cell. 2013;4:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans is required for P. aeruginosa resistance, but not through the regulation of DLK-1. In summary, our results indicate that different upstream MAPKKKs or MAPKKs regulate the activation of PMK-1 in response to P. Aeruginosa. ..
  21. Twumasi Boateng K, Wang T, Tsai L, Lee K, Salehpour A, Bhat S, et al. An age-dependent reversal in the protective capacities of JNK signaling shortens Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Aging Cell. 2012;11:659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the age-dependent reversal has intriguing implications for our understanding of aging...
  22. Law R, Hamlin J, Sivro A, McCorrister S, Cardama G, Cardona S. A functional phenylacetic acid catabolic pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Burkholderia cenocepacia in the Caenorhabditis elegans host model. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. Taken together, our results demonstrate that B. cenocepacia possesses a functional PA degradation pathway and that the putative PA-CoA ring hydroxylation system is required for full pathogenicity in C. elegans. ..
  23. Kurz C, Shapira M, Chen K, Baillie D, Tan M. Caenorhabditis elegans pgp-5 is involved in resistance to bacterial infection and heavy metal and its regulation requires TIR-1 and a p38 map kinase cascade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;363:438-43 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that not all the TIR-1 isoforms are necessary for nematode resistance to infection, suggesting a molecular basis for the differential response to abiotic and biotic stress. ..
  24. Anyanful A, Easley K, Benian G, Kalman D. Conditioning protects C. elegans from lethal effects of enteropathogenic E. coli by activating genes that regulate lifespan and innate immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:450-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the molecular pathways that control innate immunity and lifespan may be regulated or "conditioned" by exposure to pathogens to allow survival in noxious environments. ..
  25. Pujol N, Zugasti O, Wong D, Couillault C, Kurz C, Schulenburg H, et al. Anti-fungal innate immunity in C. elegans is enhanced by evolutionary diversification of antimicrobial peptides. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that selective pressure from pathogens influences intra-genomic diversification of AMPs and reveal an unexpected complexity in AMP regulation as part of the invertebrate innate immune response. ..
  26. Galbadage T, Shepherd T, Cirillo S, Gumienny T, Cirillo J. The Caenorhabditis elegans p38 MAPK Gene plays a key role in protection from mycobacteria. Microbiologyopen. 2016;5:436-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that pathogenic mycobacteria inhibit MAPK-mediated protection through the MAPK phosphatase gene and demonstrate that C. elegans provide a genetically tractable pathogenicity model of both the host and pathogen. ..