Gene Symbol: par-6
Description: Partitioning defective protein 6
Alias: Partitioning defective protein 6
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Hung T, Kemphues K. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Development. 1999;126:127-35 pubmed
    ..The co-dependence of PAR-3, PAR-6 and PKC-3 for peripheral localization and the overlap in their distributions lead us to propose that they act in a protein complex. ..
  2. Gotta M, Abraham M, Ahringer J. CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2001;11:482-8 pubmed
    ..elegans embryo, and provide evidence that the interaction of CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex has been evolutionarily conserved as a functional unit. ..
  3. Nance J, Munro E, Priess J. C. elegans PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for apicobasal asymmetries associated with cell adhesion and gastrulation. Development. 2003;130:5339-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, PAR proteins function in both apicobasal and anterior-posterior asymmetry during the first few cell cycles of embryogenesis. ..
  4. Aceto D, Beers M, Kemphues K. Interaction of PAR-6 with CDC-42 is required for maintenance but not establishment of PAR asymmetry in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2006;299:386-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the CDC-42 interaction with PAR-6 is not required for the initial establishment of asymmetry but is required for maximal cortical accumulation of PAR-6 and to maintain its asymmetry. ..
  5. Watts J, Etemad Moghadam B, Guo S, Boyd L, Draper B, Mello C, et al. par-6, a gene involved in the establishment of asymmetry in early C. elegans embryos, mediates the asymmetric localization of PAR-3. Development. 1996;122:3133-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that loss-of-function par-6 mutations act as dominant bypass suppressors of loss-of-function mutations in par-2. ..
  6. Goehring N, Hoege C, Grill S, Hyman A. PAR proteins diffuse freely across the anterior-posterior boundary in polarized C. elegans embryos. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the stably polarized embryo reflects a dynamic steady state in which molecules undergo continuous diffusion between regions of net association and dissociation. ..
  7. Munro E, Nance J, Priess J. Cortical flows powered by asymmetrical contraction transport PAR proteins to establish and maintain anterior-posterior polarity in the early C. elegans embryo. Dev Cell. 2004;7:413-24 pubmed
    ..Similar actomyosin flows accompany the establishment of PAR asymmetries that form after the one-cell stage, suggesting that actomyosin-mediated cortical flows have a general role in PAR asymmetry. ..
  8. Pacquelet A, Zanin E, Ashiono C, Gotta M. PAR-6 levels are regulated by NOS-3 in a CUL-2 dependent manner in Caenorhabditiselegans. Dev Biol. 2008;319:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly suggest that PAR-6 levels are regulated by the CBC(FEM-1) ubiquitin ligase thereby uncovering a novel role for the FEM proteins and cullin-dependent degradation in regulating PAR proteins and polarity processes. ..
  9. Aono S, Legouis R, Hoose W, Kemphues K. PAR-3 is required for epithelial cell polarity in the distal spermatheca of C. elegans. Development. 2004;131:2865-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that PAR-3 activity is required for the proper polarization of spermathecal cells and that defective ovulation results from defective distal spermathecal development. ..

More Information


  1. Von Stetina S, Mango S. PAR-6, but not E-cadherin and β-integrin, is necessary for epithelial polarization in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2015;403:5-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the arcade cell epithelium polarizes by a PAR-6-mediated pathway that is independent of E-cadherin, β-integrin and β-laminin. ..
  2. Pittman K, Skop A. Anterior PAR proteins function during cytokinesis and maintain DYN-1 at the cleavage furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:826-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time...
  3. Totong R, Achilleos A, Nance J. PAR-6 is required for junction formation but not apicobasal polarization in C. elegans embryonic epithelial cells. Development. 2007;134:1259-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, whereas the role of PAR-6 in junction formation appears to be widely conserved, PAR-6-independent mechanisms can be used to polarize epithelial cells. ..
  4. Goehring N, Trong P, Bois J, Chowdhury D, Nicola E, Hyman A, et al. Polarization of PAR proteins by advective triggering of a pattern-forming system. Science. 2011;334:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that passive advective transport in an active and flowing material may be a general mechanism for mechanochemical pattern formation in developmental systems. ..
  5. Sugiyama Y, Nishimura A, Ohno S. Symmetrically dividing cell specific division axes alteration observed in proteasome depleted C. elegans embryo. Mech Dev. 2008;125:743-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the expression of RPN-2 is involved in the mechanism to suppress nuclear-centrosome rotation in symmetrically dividing cells and it may work in cooperation with PKC-3. ..
  6. Feldman J, Priess J. A role for the centrosome and PAR-3 in the hand-off of MTOC function during epithelial polarization. Curr Biol. 2012;22:575-82 pubmed publisher
  7. Galli M, Munoz J, Portegijs V, Boxem M, Grill S, Heck A, et al. aPKC phosphorylates NuMA-related LIN-5 to position the mitotic spindle during asymmetric division. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular interaction between polarity and spindle-positioning proteins may be used broadly in cell cleavage plane determination. ..
  8. Anderson D, Gill J, Cinalli R, Nance J. Polarization of the C. elegans embryo by RhoGAP-mediated exclusion of PAR-6 from cell contacts. Science. 2008;320:1771-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PAC-1 provides a dynamic molecular link between cell contacts and PAR proteins that polarizes embryos radially. ..
  9. Li J, Kim H, Aceto D, Hung J, Aono S, Kemphues K. Binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 or to a conventional PDZ domain ligand, is required for PAR-6 function in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2010;340:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PAR-6 binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 nor to a conventional PDZ ligand, is required for PAR-6 cortical localization and function in C. elegans. ..
  10. Beers M, Kemphues K. Depletion of the co-chaperone CDC-37 reveals two modes of PAR-6 cortical association in C. elegans embryos. Development. 2006;133:3745-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that, in wild-type embryos, CDC-37-mediated inhibition of the CDC-42-dependent binding site and PAR-3-mediated release of this inhibition provide a key mechanism for the anterior accumulation of PAR-6. ..
  11. Rabilotta A, Desrosiers M, Labbé J. CDK-1 and two B-type cyclins promote PAR-6 stabilization during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0117656 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. ..
  12. Poteryaev D, Squirrell J, Campbell J, White J, Spang A. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and homotypic membrane fusion in ER dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2139-53 pubmed
    ..Both proteins have been implicated in homotypic ER membrane fusion. We provide evidence that homotypic membrane fusion is required to form the sheet structure in the early embryo. ..
  13. Walck Shannon E, Lucas B, Chin Sang I, Reiner D, Kumfer K, Cochran H, et al. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006415 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation. ..