Gene Symbol: par-4
Description: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-4
Alias: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-4
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Kemphues K, Priess J, Morton D, Cheng N. Identification of genes required for cytoplasmic localization in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1988;52:311-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that all of these defects result from the failure of a maternally encoded system for intracellular localization in early embryos. ..
  2. Watts J, Morton D, Bestman J, Kemphues K. The C. elegans par-4 gene encodes a putative serine-threonine kinase required for establishing embryonic asymmetry. Development. 2000;127:1467-75 pubmed
    ..We find no asymmetry in the distribution of PAR-4 protein in C. elegans embryos. The distribution of PAR-4 protein in early embryos is unaffected by mutations in the other par genes. ..
  3. Narbonne P, Hyenne V, Li S, Labbé J, Roy R. Differential requirements for STRAD in LKB1-dependent functions in C. elegans. Development. 2010;137:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore identify a key strd-1/STRAD-independent function of par-4/LKB1 in polarity establishment that is likely to be important for tumour suppression in humans. ..
  4. Chartier N, Salazar Ospina D, Benkemoun L, Mayer M, Grill S, Maddox A, et al. PAR-4/LKB1 mobilizes nonmuscle myosin through anillin to regulate C. elegans embryonic polarization and cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2011;21:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides the first description of a cellular mechanism by which PAR-4/LKB1 mediates cell polarization. ..
  5. Teichmann H, Shen K. UNC-6 and UNC-40 promote dendritic growth through PAR-4 in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that axon and dendrite of one neuron interpret common environmental cues with different receptors and downstream signaling pathways. ..
  6. Shen X, Valencia C, Gao W, Cotten S, Dong B, Huang B, et al. Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-binding proteins from the C. elegans proteome. Cell Calcium. 2008;43:444-56 pubmed
    ..elegans. ..
  7. Tenlen J, Molk J, London N, Page B, Priess J. MEX-5 asymmetry in one-cell C. elegans embryos requires PAR-4- and PAR-1-dependent phosphorylation. Development. 2008;135:3665-75 pubmed publisher
    ..PAR-1 and PAR-4 kinase activities are required for the phosphorylation of S458, providing a link between PAR polarity proteins and the cytoplasmic asymmetry of MEX-5. ..
  8. Benkemoun L, Descoteaux C, Chartier N, Pintard L, Labbé J. PAR-4/LKB1 regulates DNA replication during asynchronous division of the early C. elegans embryo. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans early embryonic development and further provide a novel mechanism by which PAR proteins control cell cycle progression during asynchronous cell division. ..
  9. Colella E, Li S, Roy R. Developmental and Cell Cycle Quiescence Is Mediated by the Nuclear Hormone Receptor Coregulator DIN-1S in the Caenorhabditis elegans Dauer Larva. Genetics. 2016;203:1763-76 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Narbonne P, Maddox P, Labbé J. DAF-18/PTEN signals through AAK-1/AMPK to inhibit MPK-1/MAPK in feedback control of germline stem cell proliferation. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006738 pubmed publisher
    ..As all components are conserved, similar signalling cascades may regulate stem cell activities in other organisms and be widely implicated in cancer. ..
  2. Apfeld J, O Connor G, McDonagh T, DiStefano P, Curtis R. The AMP-activated protein kinase AAK-2 links energy levels and insulin-like signals to lifespan in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2004;18:3004-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, AAK-2 is a sensor that couples lifespan to information about energy levels and insulin-like signals. ..
  3. Lee H, Cho J, Lambacher N, Lee J, Lee S, Lee T, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans AMP-activated protein kinase AAK-2 is phosphorylated by LKB1 and is required for resistance to oxidative stress and for normal motility and foraging behavior. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14988-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that AMPK can influence the behavior of C. elegans worms in addition to its well known function in metabolic control. ..
  4. Chien S, Brinkmann E, Teulière J, Garriga G. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions. Genetics. 2013;193:897-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1...
  5. Pacquelet A, Uhart P, Tassan J, Michaux G. PAR-4 and anillin regulate myosin to coordinate spindle and furrow position during asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:1085-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of asymmetrically localized myosin is thus critical to ensure that furrow and spindle midzone positions coincide throughout cytokinesis. ..
  6. Wu J, Rose L. PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit LET-99 localization to generate a cortical band important for spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4470-82 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. ..
  7. Kim J, Hung W, Narbonne P, Roy R, Zhen M. C. elegans STRADalpha and SAD cooperatively regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. Development. 2010;137:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that instead of a single, linear genetic pathway, STRADalpha and LKB1 regulate neuronal development through multiple effectors that are shared in some cellular contexts but distinct in others. ..