Gene Symbol: par-3
Description: Partitioning defective protein 3;hypothetical protein
Alias: Partitioning defective protein 3;hypothetical protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     par-3

Top Publications

  1. Cheng N, Kirby C, Kemphues K. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: the role of the genes par-2 and par-3. Genetics. 1995;139:549-59 pubmed
    ..This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. ..
  2. Kemphues K, Priess J, Morton D, Cheng N. Identification of genes required for cytoplasmic localization in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1988;52:311-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that all of these defects result from the failure of a maternally encoded system for intracellular localization in early embryos. ..
  3. Tabuse Y, Izumi Y, Piano F, Kemphues K, Miwa J, Ohno S. Atypical protein kinase C cooperates with PAR-3 to establish embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development. 1998;125:3607-14 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PKC-3 plays an indispensable role in establishing embryonic polarity through interaction with PAR-3. ..
  4. Tsou M, Hayashi A, Rose L. LET-99 opposes Galpha/GPR signaling to generate asymmetry for spindle positioning in response to PAR and MES-1/SRC-1 signaling. Development. 2003;130:5717-30 pubmed
    ..These results provide insight into how polarity cues are transmitted into specific spindle positions in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of asymmetric cell division. ..
  5. Li B, Kim H, Beers M, Kemphues K. Different domains of C. elegans PAR-3 are required at different times in development. Dev Biol. 2010;344:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly neither PDZ1 nor PDZ3 are essential for localization or function. Our results indicate that the different domains and phosphorylated forms of PAR-3 can have different roles during C. elegans development. ..
  6. Walck Shannon E, Lucas B, Chin Sang I, Reiner D, Kumfer K, Cochran H, et al. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006415 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation. ..
  7. Dawes A, Munro E. PAR-3 oligomerization may provide an actin-independent mechanism to maintain distinct par protein domains in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Biophys J. 2011;101:1412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization are sufficient to maintain distinct Par protein domains in the early C. elegans embryo. ..
  8. Lenfant N, Polanowska J, Bamps S, Omi S, Borg J, Reboul J. A genome-wide study of PDZ-domain interactions in C. elegans reveals a high frequency of non-canonical binding. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:671 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein interactions from this publication have been submitted to the IMEx ( consortium through IntAct (PMID: 19850723) and assigned the identifier IM-14654]. ..
  9. Li J, Kim H, Aceto D, Hung J, Aono S, Kemphues K. Binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 or to a conventional PDZ domain ligand, is required for PAR-6 function in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2010;340:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PAR-6 binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 nor to a conventional PDZ ligand, is required for PAR-6 cortical localization and function in C. elegans. ..

More Information


  1. Hung T, Kemphues K. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Development. 1999;126:127-35 pubmed
    ..The co-dependence of PAR-3, PAR-6 and PKC-3 for peripheral localization and the overlap in their distributions lead us to propose that they act in a protein complex. ..
  2. Waaijers S, Muñoz J, Berends C, Ramalho J, Goerdayal S, Low T, et al. A tissue-specific protein purification approach in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies novel interaction partners of DLG-1/Discs large. BMC Biol. 2016;14:66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we conclude that MAPH-1.1 is a microtubule-associated protein of the MAP1 family and a candidate neuron-specific interaction partner of DLG-1. ..
  3. Rappleye C, Tagawa A, Lyczak R, Bowerman B, Aroian R. The anaphase-promoting complex and separin are required for embryonic anterior-posterior axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;2:195-206 pubmed
    ..We propose that the APC/separin pathway promotes close association of the centrosome with the cortex, which in turn excludes PAR-3 from the posterior pole early in a-p axis formation. ..
  4. Poteryaev D, Squirrell J, Campbell J, White J, Spang A. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and homotypic membrane fusion in ER dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2139-53 pubmed
    ..Both proteins have been implicated in homotypic ER membrane fusion. We provide evidence that homotypic membrane fusion is required to form the sheet structure in the early embryo. ..
  5. Wang S, Low T, Nishimura Y, Golé L, Yu W, Motegi F. Cortical forces and CDC-42 control clustering of PAR proteins for Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:988-995 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles described here would apply to other pattern formation processes that rely on local modification of cortical actomyosin and PAR proteins. ..
  6. Panbianco C, Weinkove D, Zanin E, Jones D, Divecha N, Gotta M, et al. A casein kinase 1 and PAR proteins regulate asymmetry of a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme for asymmetric spindle positioning. Dev Cell. 2008;15:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP(2). We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP(2) by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. ..
  7. Nance J, Priess J. Cell polarity and gastrulation in C. elegans. Development. 2002;129:387-97 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that ingression times are determined by genes that control cell fate, though interactions with neighboring cells can prevent ingression. ..
  8. Aroian R, Field C, Pruliere G, Kenyon C, Alberts B. Isolation of actin-associated proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes and their localization in the early embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:1541-9 pubmed
    ..elegans development, and that the embryonic actin cytoskeleton is regulated in a complex fashion in order to carry out multiple, simultaneous functions. ..
  9. Wu J, Rose L. PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit LET-99 localization to generate a cortical band important for spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4470-82 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. ..
  10. Sieburth D, Ch ng Q, Dybbs M, Tavazoie M, Kennedy S, Wang D, et al. Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function. Nature. 2005;436:510-7 pubmed
    ..Twenty-four genes encoded proteins that were localized to presynaptic specializations. Loss-of-function mutations in 12 genes caused defects in presynaptic structure...
  11. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  12. Feldman J, Priess J. A role for the centrosome and PAR-3 in the hand-off of MTOC function during epithelial polarization. Curr Biol. 2012;22:575-82 pubmed publisher
  13. Pittman K, Skop A. Anterior PAR proteins function during cytokinesis and maintain DYN-1 at the cleavage furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:826-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time...
  14. Achilleos A, Wehman A, Nance J. PAR-3 mediates the initial clustering and apical localization of junction and polarity proteins during C. elegans intestinal epithelial cell polarization. Development. 2010;137:1833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function sequentially to position and mature apical junctions, and that the requirement for PAR-3 can vary in different types of epithelial cells...
  15. Aono S, Legouis R, Hoose W, Kemphues K. PAR-3 is required for epithelial cell polarity in the distal spermatheca of C. elegans. Development. 2004;131:2865-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that PAR-3 activity is required for the proper polarization of spermathecal cells and that defective ovulation results from defective distal spermathecal development. ..
  16. Nance J, Munro E, Priess J. C. elegans PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for apicobasal asymmetries associated with cell adhesion and gastrulation. Development. 2003;130:5339-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, PAR proteins function in both apicobasal and anterior-posterior asymmetry during the first few cell cycles of embryogenesis. ..
  17. Etemad Moghadam B, Guo S, Kemphues K. Asymmetrically distributed PAR-3 protein contributes to cell polarity and spindle alignment in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1995;83:743-52 pubmed
    ..In addition, the distribution of the PAR-3 protein correlates with differences in cleavage spindle orientation and suggests a mechanism by which PAR-3 contributes to control of cleavage pattern. ..