Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: par-3
Description: Partitioning defective protein 3;hypothetical protein
Alias: Partitioning defective protein 3;hypothetical protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
- Hung T, Kemphues K. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Development. 1999;126:127-35 pubmed..The co-dependence of PAR-3, PAR-6 and PKC-3 for peripheral localization and the overlap in their distributions lead us to propose that they act in a protein complex. ..
- Waaijers S, MuÃ±oz J, Berends C, Ramalho J, Goerdayal S, Low T, et al. A tissue-specific protein purification approach in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies novel interaction partners of DLG-1/Discs large. BMC Biol. 2016;14:66 pubmed publisher..Finally, we conclude that MAPH-1.1 is a microtubule-associated protein of the MAP1 family and a candidate neuron-specific interaction partner of DLG-1. ..
- Rappleye C, Tagawa A, Lyczak R, Bowerman B, Aroian R. The anaphase-promoting complex and separin are required for embryonic anterior-posterior axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;2:195-206 pubmed..We propose that the APC/separin pathway promotes close association of the centrosome with the cortex, which in turn excludes PAR-3 from the posterior pole early in a-p axis formation. ..
- Poteryaev D, Squirrell J, Campbell J, White J, Spang A. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and homotypic membrane fusion in ER dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2139-53 pubmed..Both proteins have been implicated in homotypic ER membrane fusion. We provide evidence that homotypic membrane fusion is required to form the sheet structure in the early embryo. ..
- Wang S, Low T, Nishimura Y, Golé L, Yu W, Motegi F. Cortical forces and CDC-42 control clustering of PAR proteins for Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:988-995 pubmed publisher..The principles described here would apply to other pattern formation processes that rely on local modification of cortical actomyosin and PAR proteins. ..
- Panbianco C, Weinkove D, Zanin E, Jones D, Divecha N, Gotta M, et al. A casein kinase 1 and PAR proteins regulate asymmetry of a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme for asymmetric spindle positioning. Dev Cell. 2008;15:198-208 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP(2). We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP(2) by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. ..
- Nance J, Priess J. Cell polarity and gastrulation in C. elegans. Development. 2002;129:387-97 pubmed..We provide evidence that ingression times are determined by genes that control cell fate, though interactions with neighboring cells can prevent ingression. ..
- Aroian R, Field C, Pruliere G, Kenyon C, Alberts B. Isolation of actin-associated proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes and their localization in the early embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:1541-9 pubmed..elegans development, and that the embryonic actin cytoskeleton is regulated in a complex fashion in order to carry out multiple, simultaneous functions. ..
- Wu J, Rose L. PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit LET-99 localization to generate a cortical band important for spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4470-82 pubmed..Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. ..
- Sieburth D, Ch ng Q, Dybbs M, Tavazoie M, Kennedy S, Wang D, et al. Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function. Nature. 2005;436:510-7 pubmed..Twenty-four genes encoded proteins that were localized to presynaptic specializations. Loss-of-function mutations in 12 genes caused defects in presynaptic structure...
- Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
- Pittman K, Skop A. Anterior PAR proteins function during cytokinesis and maintain DYN-1 at the cleavage furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:826-39 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time...
- Achilleos A, Wehman A, Nance J. PAR-3 mediates the initial clustering and apical localization of junction and polarity proteins during C. elegans intestinal epithelial cell polarization. Development. 2010;137:1833-42 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function sequentially to position and mature apical junctions, and that the requirement for PAR-3 can vary in different types of epithelial cells...
- Aono S, Legouis R, Hoose W, Kemphues K. PAR-3 is required for epithelial cell polarity in the distal spermatheca of C. elegans. Development. 2004;131:2865-74 pubmed..We propose that PAR-3 activity is required for the proper polarization of spermathecal cells and that defective ovulation results from defective distal spermathecal development. ..
- Nance J, Munro E, Priess J. C. elegans PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for apicobasal asymmetries associated with cell adhesion and gastrulation. Development. 2003;130:5339-50 pubmed..Thus, PAR proteins function in both apicobasal and anterior-posterior asymmetry during the first few cell cycles of embryogenesis. ..
- Etemad Moghadam B, Guo S, Kemphues K. Asymmetrically distributed PAR-3 protein contributes to cell polarity and spindle alignment in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1995;83:743-52 pubmed..In addition, the distribution of the PAR-3 protein correlates with differences in cleavage spindle orientation and suggests a mechanism by which PAR-3 contributes to control of cleavage pattern. ..