Gene Symbol: par-2
Description: hypothetical protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     par-2

Top Publications

  1. Goehring N, Hoege C, Grill S, Hyman A. PAR proteins diffuse freely across the anterior-posterior boundary in polarized C. elegans embryos. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the stably polarized embryo reflects a dynamic steady state in which molecules undergo continuous diffusion between regions of net association and dissociation. ..
  2. Kemphues K, Priess J, Morton D, Cheng N. Identification of genes required for cytoplasmic localization in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1988;52:311-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that all of these defects result from the failure of a maternally encoded system for intracellular localization in early embryos. ..
  3. Beatty A, Morton D, Kemphues K. The C. elegans homolog of Drosophila Lethal giant larvae functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity in the early embryo. Development. 2010;137:3995-4004 pubmed publisher
    ..LGL-1 negatively regulates the accumulation of myosin (NMY-2) on the posterior cortex, representing a possible mechanism by which LGL-1 might contribute to polarity maintenance. ..
  4. Zonies S, Motegi F, Hao Y, Seydoux G. Symmetry breaking and polarization of the C. elegans zygote by the polarity protein PAR-2. Development. 2010;137:1669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that polarity in the C. elegans zygote is initiated by redundant ECT-2- and PAR-2-dependent mechanisms that lower PAR-3 levels locally, triggering a positive-feedback loop that polarizes the entire cortex. ..
  5. Hao Y, Boyd L, Seydoux G. Stabilization of cell polarity by the C. elegans RING protein PAR-2. Dev Cell. 2006;10:199-208 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that reciprocal inhibitory interactions among PAR proteins stabilize polarity by reinforcing an initial asymmetry in PKC-3. ..
  6. Labbé J, Pacquelet A, Marty T, Gotta M. A genomewide screen for suppressors of par-2 uncovers potential regulators of PAR protein-dependent cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2006;174:285-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify conserved components that regulate PAR protein function and also suggest a role for NOS-3 in PAR protein-dependent cell polarity. ..
  7. Boyd L, Guo S, Levitan D, Stinchcomb D, Kemphues K. PAR-2 is asymmetrically distributed and promotes association of P granules and PAR-1 with the cortex in C. elegans embryos. Development. 1996;122:3075-84 pubmed
    ..We also find that, although par-2 activity is not required for posterior localization of P granules at the one-cell stage, it is required for proper cortical association of P granules in P1. ..
  8. Seirin Lee S. Positioning of polarity formation by extracellular signaling during asymmetric cell division. J Theor Biol. 2016;400:52-64 pubmed publisher
    ..I show that a positive correlation between SRC-1 and the on-rate of PAR-2 is the essential mechanism underlying polarity reversal, providing a mathematical basis for the orientation of cell polarity patterns. ..
  9. Arata Y, Hiroshima M, Pack C, Ramanujam R, Motegi F, Nakazato K, et al. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2156-2168 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion. ..

More Information


  1. Gudgen M, Chandrasekaran A, Frazier T, Boyd L. Interactions within the ubiquitin pathway of Caenorhabditis elegans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:479-86 pubmed
    ..Using NHL-1 as the E3 in the assays, ubiquitination was observed when both UBC-1 and UBC-13 were present but not with either alone. These data imply that some E2s require dimerization in order to function. ..
  2. Rappleye C, Tagawa A, Lyczak R, Bowerman B, Aroian R. The anaphase-promoting complex and separin are required for embryonic anterior-posterior axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;2:195-206 pubmed
    ..We propose that the APC/separin pathway promotes close association of the centrosome with the cortex, which in turn excludes PAR-3 from the posterior pole early in a-p axis formation. ..
  3. Motegi F, Zonies S, Hao Y, Cuenca A, Griffin E, Seydoux G. Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illustrate how microtubules, independently of actin dynamics, stimulate the self-organization of PAR proteins by providing local protection against a global barrier imposed by aPKC...
  4. Goehring N, Trong P, Bois J, Chowdhury D, Nicola E, Hyman A, et al. Polarization of PAR proteins by advective triggering of a pattern-forming system. Science. 2011;334:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that passive advective transport in an active and flowing material may be a general mechanism for mechanochemical pattern formation in developmental systems. ..
  5. Dudley N, Labbé J, Goldstein B. Using RNA interference to identify genes required for RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4191-6 pubmed
    ..The finding that genes predicted to encode proteins that associate with chromatin are involved in RNAi in C. elegans raises the possibility that chromatin may play a role in RNAi in animals, as it does in plants. ..
  6. Levitan D, Boyd L, Mello C, Kemphues K, Stinchcomb D. par-2, a gene required for blastomere asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes zinc-finger and ATP-binding motifs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6108-12 pubmed
  7. Cheng N, Kirby C, Kemphues K. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: the role of the genes par-2 and par-3. Genetics. 1995;139:549-59 pubmed
    ..This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. ..
  8. Arata Y, Lee J, Goldstein B, Sawa H. Extracellular control of PAR protein localization during asymmetric cell division in the C. elegans embryo. Development. 2010;137:3337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Src functions as an evolutionarily conserved molecular link that coordinates extrinsic cues with PAR protein localization. ..
  9. Beatty A, Morton D, Kemphues K. PAR-2, LGL-1 and the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1 act in distinct pathways to maintain polarity in the C. elegans embryo. Development. 2013;140:2005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that, in addition to its primary role in regulating the size of the anterior cortical domain via its binding to PAR-6, CDC-42 has a secondary role in regulating cortical myosin that is not dependent on PAR-6...