Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: par-1
Description: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-1;hypothetical protein
Alias: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-1;hypothetical protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
- Panbianco C, Weinkove D, Zanin E, Jones D, Divecha N, Gotta M, et al. A casein kinase 1 and PAR proteins regulate asymmetry of a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme for asymmetric spindle positioning. Dev Cell. 2008;15:198-208 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP(2). We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP(2) by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. ..
- Boyd L, Guo S, Levitan D, Stinchcomb D, Kemphues K. PAR-2 is asymmetrically distributed and promotes association of P granules and PAR-1 with the cortex in C. elegans embryos. Development. 1996;122:3075-84 pubmed..We also find that, although par-2 activity is not required for posterior localization of P granules at the one-cell stage, it is required for proper cortical association of P granules in P1. ..
- Guo S, Kemphues K. A non-muscle myosin required for embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 1996;382:455-8 pubmed..We therefore conclude the NMY-2 is required for establishing cellular polarity in C. elegans embryos. ..
- Chien S, Brinkmann E, Teulière J, Garriga G. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions. Genetics. 2013;193:897-909 pubmed publisher..Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1...
- Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
- Tassan J, Le Goff X. An overview of the KIN1/PAR-1/MARK kinase family. Biol Cell. 2004;96:193-9 pubmed..Some common modes of action can be deciphered for this protein kinase family. ..
- Huang N, Mootz D, Walhout A, Vidal M, Hunter C. MEX-3 interacting proteins link cell polarity to asymmetric gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development. 2002;129:747-59 pubmed..We propose that MEX-6 and SPN-4 act with MEX-3 to translate the temporal and spatial information provided by the early acting par genes into the asymmetric expression of the cell fate determinant PAL-1. ..
- Tenlen J, Molk J, London N, Page B, Priess J. MEX-5 asymmetry in one-cell C. elegans embryos requires PAR-4- and PAR-1-dependent phosphorylation. Development. 2008;135:3665-75 pubmed publisher..PAR-1 and PAR-4 kinase activities are required for the phosphorylation of S458, providing a link between PAR polarity proteins and the cytoplasmic asymmetry of MEX-5. ..
- Morton D, Shakes D, Nugent S, Dichoso D, Wang W, Golden A, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans par-5 gene encodes a 14-3-3 protein required for cellular asymmetry in the early embryo. Dev Biol. 2002;241:47-58 pubmed..Our analysis indicates that the par-5 14-3-3 gene plays a crucial role in the early events leading to polarization of the C. elegans zygote. ..
- Motegi F, Zonies S, Hao Y, Cuenca A, Griffin E, Seydoux G. Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1361-7 pubmed publisher..Our findings illustrate how microtubules, independently of actin dynamics, stimulate the self-organization of PAR proteins by providing local protection against a global barrier imposed by aPKC...
- Benkemoun L, Descoteaux C, Chartier N, Pintard L, Labbé J. PAR-4/LKB1 regulates DNA replication during asynchronous division of the early C. elegans embryo. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:447-55 pubmed publisher..elegans early embryonic development and further provide a novel mechanism by which PAR proteins control cell cycle progression during asynchronous cell division. ..
- Wu J, Espiritu E, Rose L. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein. Dev Biol. 2016;412:288-297 pubmed publisher..Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. ..
- Butkevich E, HÃ¤rtig W, Nikolov M, Erck C, Grosche J, Urlaub H, et al. Phosphorylation of FEZ1 by Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinases regulates its function in presynaptic protein trafficking. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26965 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that perturbed FEZ1-mediated synaptic delivery of proteins arising from abnormal signalling potentially contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. ..