Gene Symbol: par-1
Description: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-1;hypothetical protein
Alias: Serine/threonine-protein kinase par-1;hypothetical protein
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     par-1

Top Publications

  1. Guo S, Kemphues K. par-1, a gene required for establishing polarity in C. elegans embryos, encodes a putative Ser/Thr kinase that is asymmetrically distributed. Cell. 1995;81:611-20 pubmed
    ..Because PAR-1 distribution in the germline correlates with the distribution of germline-specific P granules, it is possible that PAR-1 functions in germline development as well as in establishing embryonic polarity. ..
  2. Griffin E, Odde D, Seydoux G. Regulation of the MEX-5 gradient by a spatially segregated kinase/phosphatase cycle. Cell. 2011;146:955-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles demonstrated here apply to any spatially segregated modification cycle that affects protein diffusion and do not require protein synthesis or degradation...
  3. Spilker A, Rabilotta A, Zbinden C, Labbé J, Gotta M. MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 function during polarization of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Genetics. 2009;183:965-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore indicates that MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 signaling during early C. elegans embryonic polarization. ..
  4. Kao G, Tuck S, Baillie D, Sundaram M. C. elegans SUR-6/PR55 cooperates with LET-92/protein phosphatase 2A and promotes Raf activity independently of inhibitory Akt phosphorylation sites. Development. 2004;131:755-65 pubmed
    ..In addition to their roles in Ras signaling, SUR-6/PR55 and LET-92/PP2A-C cooperate to control mitotic progression during early embryogenesis. ..
  5. Labbé J, Pacquelet A, Marty T, Gotta M. A genomewide screen for suppressors of par-2 uncovers potential regulators of PAR protein-dependent cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2006;174:285-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify conserved components that regulate PAR protein function and also suggest a role for NOS-3 in PAR protein-dependent cell polarity. ..
  6. Hurd D, Kemphues K. PAR-1 is required for morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva. Dev Biol. 2003;253:54-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that PAR-1 activity at the cell cortex is critical for mediating cell shape changes, cell surface composition, or cell signaling during vulval morphogenesis. ..
  7. Wu J, Rose L. PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit LET-99 localization to generate a cortical band important for spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4470-82 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. ..
  8. Kim J, Hung W, Narbonne P, Roy R, Zhen M. C. elegans STRADalpha and SAD cooperatively regulate neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. Development. 2010;137:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that instead of a single, linear genetic pathway, STRADalpha and LKB1 regulate neuronal development through multiple effectors that are shared in some cellular contexts but distinct in others. ..
  9. Lin R, Thompson S, Priess J. pop-1 encodes an HMG box protein required for the specification of a mesoderm precursor in early C. elegans embryos. Cell. 1995;83:599-609 pubmed
    ..We propose that POP-1 and SKN-1 function together in the early embryo to allow MS-specific differentiation. ..

More Information


  1. Panbianco C, Weinkove D, Zanin E, Jones D, Divecha N, Gotta M, et al. A casein kinase 1 and PAR proteins regulate asymmetry of a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme for asymmetric spindle positioning. Dev Cell. 2008;15:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP(2). We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP(2) by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. ..
  2. Boyd L, Guo S, Levitan D, Stinchcomb D, Kemphues K. PAR-2 is asymmetrically distributed and promotes association of P granules and PAR-1 with the cortex in C. elegans embryos. Development. 1996;122:3075-84 pubmed
    ..We also find that, although par-2 activity is not required for posterior localization of P granules at the one-cell stage, it is required for proper cortical association of P granules in P1. ..
  3. Guo S, Kemphues K. A non-muscle myosin required for embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 1996;382:455-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude the NMY-2 is required for establishing cellular polarity in C. elegans embryos. ..
  4. Chien S, Brinkmann E, Teulière J, Garriga G. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions. Genetics. 2013;193:897-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1...
  5. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  6. Tassan J, Le Goff X. An overview of the KIN1/PAR-1/MARK kinase family. Biol Cell. 2004;96:193-9 pubmed
    ..Some common modes of action can be deciphered for this protein kinase family. ..
  7. Huang N, Mootz D, Walhout A, Vidal M, Hunter C. MEX-3 interacting proteins link cell polarity to asymmetric gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development. 2002;129:747-59 pubmed
    ..We propose that MEX-6 and SPN-4 act with MEX-3 to translate the temporal and spatial information provided by the early acting par genes into the asymmetric expression of the cell fate determinant PAL-1. ..
  8. Tenlen J, Molk J, London N, Page B, Priess J. MEX-5 asymmetry in one-cell C. elegans embryos requires PAR-4- and PAR-1-dependent phosphorylation. Development. 2008;135:3665-75 pubmed publisher
    ..PAR-1 and PAR-4 kinase activities are required for the phosphorylation of S458, providing a link between PAR polarity proteins and the cytoplasmic asymmetry of MEX-5. ..
  9. Morton D, Shakes D, Nugent S, Dichoso D, Wang W, Golden A, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans par-5 gene encodes a 14-3-3 protein required for cellular asymmetry in the early embryo. Dev Biol. 2002;241:47-58 pubmed
    ..Our analysis indicates that the par-5 14-3-3 gene plays a crucial role in the early events leading to polarization of the C. elegans zygote. ..
  10. Motegi F, Zonies S, Hao Y, Cuenca A, Griffin E, Seydoux G. Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illustrate how microtubules, independently of actin dynamics, stimulate the self-organization of PAR proteins by providing local protection against a global barrier imposed by aPKC...
  11. Benkemoun L, Descoteaux C, Chartier N, Pintard L, Labbé J. PAR-4/LKB1 regulates DNA replication during asynchronous division of the early C. elegans embryo. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans early embryonic development and further provide a novel mechanism by which PAR proteins control cell cycle progression during asynchronous cell division. ..
  12. Wu J, Espiritu E, Rose L. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein. Dev Biol. 2016;412:288-297 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. ..
  13. Jiu Y, Hasygar K, Tang L, Liu Y, Holmberg C, B rglin T, et al. par-1, atypical pkc, and PP2A/B55 sur-6 are implicated in the regulation of exocyst-mediated membrane trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:173-83 pubmed publisher
  14. Butkevich E, Härtig W, Nikolov M, Erck C, Grosche J, Urlaub H, et al. Phosphorylation of FEZ1 by Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinases regulates its function in presynaptic protein trafficking. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26965 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that perturbed FEZ1-mediated synaptic delivery of proteins arising from abnormal signalling potentially contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. ..