Gene Symbol: lin-39
Description: Homeobox protein lin-39
Alias: Homeobox protein lin-39
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Deplancke B, Dupuy D, Vidal M, Walhout A. A gateway-compatible yeast one-hybrid system. Genome Res. 2004;14:2093-101 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the Gateway-compatible Y1H system will allow the high-throughput identification of protein-DNA interactions and may be a valuable tool to decipher transcription regulatory networks. ..
  2. Szabo E, Hargitai B, Regos A, Tihanyi B, Barna J, Borsos E, et al. TRA-1/GLI controls the expression of the Hox gene lin-39 during C. elegans vulval development. Dev Biol. 2009;330:339-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Wagmaister J, Gleason J, Eisenmann D. Transcriptional upregulation of the C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 during vulval cell fate specification. Mech Dev. 2006;123:135-50 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that when the Wnt pathway is over activated, expression from the transcriptional lin-39::GFP increases, suggesting that the Wnt pathway also regulates lin-39 at the transcriptional level. ..
  4. Wagmaister J, Miley G, Morris C, Gleason J, Miller L, Kornfeld K, et al. Identification of cis-regulatory elements from the C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 required for embryonic expression and for regulation by the transcription factors LIN-1, LIN-31 and LIN-39. Dev Biol. 2006;297:550-65 pubmed
    ..p. Therefore, we have begun to unravel the cis-acting sites regulating lin-39 Hox gene expression and have shown that lin-39 is a direct target of the Ras pathway acting via LIN-1 and LIN-31. ..
  5. Maloof J, Kenyon C. The Hox gene lin-39 is required during C. elegans vulval induction to select the outcome of Ras signaling. Development. 1998;125:181-90 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that in addition to permitting vulval cell divisions to occur, lin-39 is also required to specify the outcome of Ras signaling by selectively activating vulva-specific genes. ..
  6. Koh K, Peyrot S, Wood C, Wagmaister J, Maduro M, Eisenmann D, et al. Cell fates and fusion in the C. elegans vulval primordium are regulated by the EGL-18 and ELT-6 GATA factors -- apparent direct targets of the LIN-39 Hox protein. Development. 2002;129:5171-80 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the EGL-18 and ELT-6 GATA factors are essential, genetically redundant regulators of cell fates and fusion in the developing vulva and are apparent direct transcriptional targets of the LIN-39 Hox protein...
  7. Liu W, Reece Hoyes J, Walhout A, Eisenmann D. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:17 pubmed publisher
    ..This work indicates that, as in other organisms, the regulation of Hox gene expression in C. elegans is complicated, redundant and robust. ..
  8. Pellegrino M, Farooqui S, Fröhli E, Rehrauer H, Kaeser Pebernard S, Muller F, et al. LIN-39 and the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway regulate C. elegans vulval morphogenesis via the VAB-23 zinc finger protein. Development. 2011;138:4649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Vulval cell fate specification and execution are, therefore, tightly coupled processes. ..
  9. Roiz D, Escobar Restrepo J, Leu P, Hajnal A. The C. elegans hox gene lin-39 controls cell cycle progression during vulval development. Dev Biol. 2016;418:124-134 pubmed publisher
    ..The hox gene lin-39 is therefore a central node in a regulatory network coordinating VPC differentiation and proliferation. ..

More Information


  1. Yang L, Sym M, Kenyon C. The roles of two C. elegans HOX co-factor orthologs in cell migration and vulva development. Development. 2005;132:1413-28 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, ceh-20 and unc-62 mutants have phenotypes that are starkly different from those of lin-39 mutants. Thus, in this process, too, ceh-20 and unc-62 are likely to have functions that are independent of lin-39. ..
  2. Winn J, Carter M, Avery L, Cameron S. Hox and a newly identified E2F co-repress cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2011;188:897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that LIN-39 and EFL-3 function in a cell type-specific context to regulate transcription of the egl-1 BH3-only cell death gene and to determine cell fate during development. ..
  3. Howard R, Sundaram M. C. elegans EOR-1/PLZF and EOR-2 positively regulate Ras and Wnt signaling and function redundantly with LIN-25 and the SUR-2 Mediator component. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1815-27 pubmed
    ..Further studies of eor-1 and eor-2 may provide insight into the roles of PLZF in normal development and leukemogenesis. ..
  4. Wang X, Zhou F, Lv S, Yi P, Zhu Z, Yang Y, et al. Transmembrane protein MIG-13 links the Wnt signaling and Hox genes to the cell polarity in neuronal migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MIG-13 links the Wnt signaling and Hox genes that guide migrations, to the actin cytoskeleton, which executes the motility response in neuronal migration. ..
  5. Takacs Vellai K, Vellai T, Chen E, Zhang Y, Guerry F, Stern M, et al. Transcriptional control of Notch signaling by a HOX and a PBX/EXD protein during vulval development in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2007;302:661-9 pubmed
  6. Tian C, Shi H, Colledge C, Stern M, Waterston R, Liu J. The C. elegans SoxC protein SEM-2 opposes differentiation factors to promote a proliferative blast cell fate in the postembryonic mesoderm. Development. 2011;138:1033-43 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans M lineage suggests a possible more general link between Hox-PBC factors and SoxC proteins in regulating cell proliferation. ..
  7. Gleason J, Korswagen H, Eisenmann D. Activation of Wnt signaling bypasses the requirement for RTK/Ras signaling during C. elegans vulval induction. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1281-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that hyperactivation of Wnt signaling is sufficient to cause VPCs to adopt induced fates and that a canonical Wnt pathway may play an important role during C. elegans vulval induction. ..
  8. Josephson M, Miltner A, Lundquist E. Nonautonomous Roles of MAB-5/Hox and the Secreted Basement Membrane Molecule SPON-1/F-Spondin in Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Migration. Genetics. 2016;203:1747-62 pubmed publisher
    ..spon-1 expression from BWMs might be part of the posterior patterning necessary for directed Q descendant migration. ..
  9. Loer C, Kenyon C. Serotonin-deficient mutants and male mating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 1993;13:5407-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of these and additional serotonin-deficient mutants may help us understand how a neuron controls the expression of a serotonergic phenotype. ..