Gene Symbol: fem-3
Description: FEMinization of XX and XO animals;Sex-determination protein fem-3
Alias: FEMinization of XX and XO animals;Sex-determination protein fem-3
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Zanetti S, Grinschgl S, Meola M, Belfiore M, Rey S, Bianchi P, et al. The sperm-oocyte switch in the C. elegans hermaphrodite is controlled through steady-state levels of the fem-3 mRNA. RNA. 2012;18:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that wild-type and gain-of-function mutated fem-3 mRNAs associate equally well with polyribosomes. We propose that the fem-3 mRNA is regulated through stabilization rather than through translatability...
  2. Jaramillo Lambert A, Engebrecht J. A single unpaired and transcriptionally silenced X chromosome locally precludes checkpoint signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Genetics. 2010;184:613-28 pubmed publisher
  3. Das P, Bagijn M, Goldstein L, Woolford J, Lehrbach N, Sapetschnig A, et al. Piwi and piRNAs act upstream of an endogenous siRNA pathway to suppress Tc3 transposon mobility in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline. Mol Cell. 2008;31:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. Instead, we demonstrate that Piwi acts upstream of an endogenous siRNA pathway in Tc3 silencing. These data might suggest a link between piRNA and siRNA function. ..
  4. Zanin E, Pacquelet A, Scheckel C, Ciosk R, Gotta M. LARP-1 promotes oogenesis by repressing fem-3 in the C. elegans germline. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2717-24 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, levels of fem-3 mRNA are not affected in nos-3 mutants. Therefore, our data indicate that LARP-1 and NOS-3 promote oogenesis by regulating fem-3 expression through distinct mechanisms. ..
  5. Detwiler M, Reuben M, Li X, Rogers E, Lin R. Two zinc finger proteins, OMA-1 and OMA-2, are redundantly required for oocyte maturation in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2001;1:187-99 pubmed
    ..The Oma prophase arrest is released by inactivation of a MYT-1-like kinase, suggesting that OMA-1 and OMA-2 function upstream of MYT-1 as positive regulators of prophase progression during meiotic maturation. ..
  6. Jäger S, Schwartz H, Horvitz H, Conradt B. The Caenorhabditis elegans F-box protein SEL-10 promotes female development and may target FEM-1 and FEM-3 for degradation by the proteasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12549-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that SEL-10-mediated proteolysis of FEM-1 and FEM-3 is required for normal hermaphrodite development. ..
  7. Ciosk R, DePalma M, Priess J. ATX-2, the C. elegans ortholog of ataxin 2, functions in translational regulation in the germline. Development. 2004;131:4831-41 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that ATX-2 functions in translational regulation that is mediated by GLD-1 and MEX-3 proteins. ..
  8. Haag E, Wang S, Kimble J. Rapid coevolution of the nematode sex-determining genes fem-3 and tra-2. Curr Biol. 2002;12:2035-41 pubmed
    ..Extrapolation of this result to larger phylogenetic scales helps explain the dissimilarity of the sex determination systems across phyla. ..
  9. Hargitai B, Kutnyánszky V, Blauwkamp T, Stetak A, Csankovszki G, Takacs Vellai K, et al. xol-1, the master sex-switch gene in C. elegans, is a transcriptional target of the terminal sex-determining factor TRA-1. Development. 2009;136:3881-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply the existence of a regulatory feedback loop within the C. elegans sex-determination and dosage-compensation cascade that ensures the accurate dose of X-linked genes in cells destined to adopt hermaphrodite fate. ..

More Information


  1. Rosenquist T, Kimble J. Molecular cloning and transcript analysis of fem-3, a sex-determination gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev. 1988;2:606-16 pubmed
    ..The amount of fem-3 RNA in XO embryos is approximately sixfold greater than in XX embryos. The significance of this difference in specifying male development in XO but not in XX embryos is discussed...
  2. Bachorik J, Kimble J. Redundant control of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm/oocyte switch by PUF-8 and FBF-1, two distinct PUF RNA-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10893-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PUF-8 and FBF-1 may control fog-2 expression, and that the sperm/oocyte decision occurs in the distal germ line. ..
  3. Zhang Y, Zhao H, Wang J, Ge J, Li Y, Gu J, et al. Structural insight into Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining protein FEM-2. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:22058-66 pubmed publisher
  4. Qiu C, Kershner A, Wang Y, Holley C, Wilinski D, Keles S, et al. Divergence of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) protein specificity through variations in an RNA-binding pocket. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of the pocket requires only substitution of one serine, as appears to have occurred during the evolution of certain fungal species. ..
  5. Lamont L, Crittenden S, Bernstein D, Wickens M, Kimble J. FBF-1 and FBF-2 regulate the size of the mitotic region in the C. elegans germline. Dev Cell. 2004;7:697-707 pubmed
    ..Therefore, fbf-1 and fbf-2 provide a paradigm for how recently duplicated genes can diverge to fine-tune patterning during animal development. ..
  6. Chin Sang I, Spence A. Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining protein FEM-2 is a protein phosphatase that promotes male development and interacts directly with FEM-3. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2314-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that protein phosphorylation regulates sex determination in C. elegans. ..
  7. Lum D, Kuwabara P, Zarkower D, Spence A. Direct protein-protein interaction between the intracellular domain of TRA-2 and the transcription factor TRA-1A modulates feminizing activity in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3153-65 pubmed
    ..We further show that tagged derivatives of the intracellular domain of TRA-2 localize to the nucleus, supporting the hypothesis that this domain is capable of modulating TRA-1A activity in a manner reminiscent of Notch and Su(H). ..
  8. Hodgkin J. Sex determination in the nematode C. elegans: analysis of tra-3 suppressors and characterization of fem genes. Genetics. 1986;114:15-52 pubmed
    ..Maternal contributions of wild-type fem-3 product are necessary for normal XO male development and XX hermaphrodite (as opposed to female) development. ..
  9. Pacquelet A, Zanin E, Ashiono C, Gotta M. PAR-6 levels are regulated by NOS-3 in a CUL-2 dependent manner in Caenorhabditiselegans. Dev Biol. 2008;319:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly suggest that PAR-6 levels are regulated by the CBC(FEM-1) ubiquitin ligase thereby uncovering a novel role for the FEM proteins and cullin-dependent degradation in regulating PAR proteins and polarity processes. ..
  10. Starostina N, Lim J, Schvarzstein M, Wells L, Spence A, Kipreos E. A CUL-2 ubiquitin ligase containing three FEM proteins degrades TRA-1 to regulate C. elegans sex determination. Dev Cell. 2007;13:127-39 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that the terminal step in C. elegans sex determination is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. ..
  11. Tan K, Chan S, Tan K, Yu V. The Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining protein FEM-2 and its human homologue, hFEM-2, are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44193-202 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that hFEM-2 and rCaMKPase are mammalian homologues of FEM-2 and they are evolutionarily conserved CaM kinase phosphatases that may have a role in apoptosis signaling. ..
  12. Arur S, Ohmachi M, Berkseth M, Nayak S, Hansen D, Zarkower D, et al. MPK-1 ERK controls membrane organization in C. elegans oogenesis via a sex-determination module. Dev Cell. 2011;20:677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the proximal germline, sperm-dependent physiological MPK-1 activation results in phosphorylation-based inactivation of NOS-3, FEM-CUL-2-mediated degradation of TRA-1 and the promotion of membrane organization during oogenesis. ..
  13. Mehra A, Gaudet J, Heck L, Kuwabara P, Spence A. Negative regulation of male development in Caenorhabditis elegans by a protein-protein interaction between TRA-2A and FEM-3. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1453-63 pubmed
    ..When the balance favors FEM-3, it acts through or with the other FEM proteins to promote male cell fates. ..