Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: fem-3
Description: FEMinization of XX and XO animals;Sex-determination protein fem-3
Alias: FEMinization of XX and XO animals;Sex-determination protein fem-3
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
- Rosenquist T, Kimble J. Molecular cloning and transcript analysis of fem-3, a sex-determination gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev. 1988;2:606-16 pubmed..The amount of fem-3 RNA in XO embryos is approximately sixfold greater than in XX embryos. The significance of this difference in specifying male development in XO but not in XX embryos is discussed...
- Bachorik J, Kimble J. Redundant control of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm/oocyte switch by PUF-8 and FBF-1, two distinct PUF RNA-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10893-7 pubmed..We suggest that PUF-8 and FBF-1 may control fog-2 expression, and that the sperm/oocyte decision occurs in the distal germ line. ..
- Qiu C, Kershner A, Wang Y, Holley C, Wilinski D, Keles S, et al. Divergence of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor (PUF) protein specificity through variations in an RNA-binding pocket. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6949-57 pubmed publisher..Loss of the pocket requires only substitution of one serine, as appears to have occurred during the evolution of certain fungal species. ..
- Lamont L, Crittenden S, Bernstein D, Wickens M, Kimble J. FBF-1 and FBF-2 regulate the size of the mitotic region in the C. elegans germline. Dev Cell. 2004;7:697-707 pubmed..Therefore, fbf-1 and fbf-2 provide a paradigm for how recently duplicated genes can diverge to fine-tune patterning during animal development. ..
- Chin Sang I, Spence A. Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining protein FEM-2 is a protein phosphatase that promotes male development and interacts directly with FEM-3. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2314-25 pubmed..These results suggest that protein phosphorylation regulates sex determination in C. elegans. ..
- Lum D, Kuwabara P, Zarkower D, Spence A. Direct protein-protein interaction between the intracellular domain of TRA-2 and the transcription factor TRA-1A modulates feminizing activity in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3153-65 pubmed..We further show that tagged derivatives of the intracellular domain of TRA-2 localize to the nucleus, supporting the hypothesis that this domain is capable of modulating TRA-1A activity in a manner reminiscent of Notch and Su(H). ..
- Hodgkin J. Sex determination in the nematode C. elegans: analysis of tra-3 suppressors and characterization of fem genes. Genetics. 1986;114:15-52 pubmed..Maternal contributions of wild-type fem-3 product are necessary for normal XO male development and XX hermaphrodite (as opposed to female) development. ..
- Pacquelet A, Zanin E, Ashiono C, Gotta M. PAR-6 levels are regulated by NOS-3 in a CUL-2 dependent manner in Caenorhabditiselegans. Dev Biol. 2008;319:267-72 pubmed publisher..Our data strongly suggest that PAR-6 levels are regulated by the CBC(FEM-1) ubiquitin ligase thereby uncovering a novel role for the FEM proteins and cullin-dependent degradation in regulating PAR proteins and polarity processes. ..
- Starostina N, Lim J, Schvarzstein M, Wells L, Spence A, Kipreos E. A CUL-2 ubiquitin ligase containing three FEM proteins degrades TRA-1 to regulate C. elegans sex determination. Dev Cell. 2007;13:127-39 pubmed..This work demonstrates that the terminal step in C. elegans sex determination is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. ..
- Tan K, Chan S, Tan K, Yu V. The Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining protein FEM-2 and its human homologue, hFEM-2, are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44193-202 pubmed..Taken together, our data suggest that hFEM-2 and rCaMKPase are mammalian homologues of FEM-2 and they are evolutionarily conserved CaM kinase phosphatases that may have a role in apoptosis signaling. ..
- Arur S, Ohmachi M, Berkseth M, Nayak S, Hansen D, Zarkower D, et al. MPK-1 ERK controls membrane organization in C. elegans oogenesis via a sex-determination module. Dev Cell. 2011;20:677-88 pubmed publisher..In the proximal germline, sperm-dependent physiological MPK-1 activation results in phosphorylation-based inactivation of NOS-3, FEM-CUL-2-mediated degradation of TRA-1 and the promotion of membrane organization during oogenesis. ..
- Mehra A, Gaudet J, Heck L, Kuwabara P, Spence A. Negative regulation of male development in Caenorhabditis elegans by a protein-protein interaction between TRA-2A and FEM-3. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1453-63 pubmed..When the balance favors FEM-3, it acts through or with the other FEM proteins to promote male cell fates. ..