Gene Symbol: eff-1
Description: Epithelial Fusion Failure
Alias: Epithelial Fusion Failure
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Shemer G, Suissa M, Kolotuev I, Nguyen K, Hall D, Podbilewicz B. EFF-1 is sufficient to initiate and execute tissue-specific cell fusion in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1587-91 pubmed
    ..The eff-1 (epithelial fusion failure) gene encodes novel type I membrane proteins required for epithelial cell fusion...
  2. Mohler W, Shemer G, del Campo J, Valansi C, Opoku Serebuoh E, Scranton V, et al. The type I membrane protein EFF-1 is essential for developmental cell fusion. Dev Cell. 2002;2:355-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, EFF-1 is a key component in the mechanism of cell fusion, a process essential to normal animal development. ..
  3. Oren Suissa M, Hall D, Treinin M, Shemer G, Podbilewicz B. The fusogen EFF-1 controls sculpting of mechanosensory dendrites. Science. 2010;328:1285-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal pruning appeared to involve EFF-1-dependent branch retraction and neurite-neurite autofusion. Thus, EFF-1 activities may act as a quality control mechanism during the sculpting of dendritic trees...
  4. Gattegno T, Mittal A, Valansi C, Nguyen K, Hall D, Chernomordik L, et al. Genetic control of fusion pore expansion in the epidermis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1153-66 pubmed
    ..The first cell fusion does not trigger a wave of orderly fusions in either direction. Ultrastructural studies show that epidermal syncytiogenesis require eff-1 activities to initiate and expand membrane merger...
  5. Sapir A, Choi J, Leikina E, Avinoam O, Valansi C, Chernomordik L, et al. AFF-1, a FOS-1-regulated fusogen, mediates fusion of the anchor cell in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2007;12:683-98 pubmed
    ..Thus, FOS-1 links cell invasion and fusion in a developmental cascade. ..
  6. Podbilewicz B, Leikina E, Sapir A, Valansi C, Suissa M, Shemer G, et al. The C. elegans developmental fusogen EFF-1 mediates homotypic fusion in heterologous cells and in vivo. Dev Cell. 2006;11:471-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, although EFF-1-mediated fusion shares characteristics with viral and intracellular fusion, including an apparent hemifusion step, it differs from these reactions in the homotypic organization of the fusion machinery. ..
  7. Pérez Vargas J, Krey T, Valansi C, Avinoam O, Haouz A, Jamin M, et al. Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion. Cell. 2014;157:407-419 pubmed publisher
  8. Kontani K, Moskowitz I, Rothman J. Repression of cell-cell fusion by components of the C. elegans vacuolar ATPase complex. Dev Cell. 2005;8:787-94 pubmed
    ..fus-1 encodes the e subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), and loss of other V-ATPase subunits also causes widespread hyperfusion. These findings raise the possibility of manipulating cell fusion by altering V-ATPase activity. ..
  9. Brabin C, Appleford P, Woollard A. The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor ELT-1 works through the cell proliferation regulator BRO-1 and the Fusogen EFF-1 to maintain the seam stem-like fate. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002200 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that ELT-1 has dual roles in the stem-like seam cells, acting both to promote proliferation and prevent differentiation. ..

More Information


  1. Zeev Ben Mordehai T, Vasishtan D, Siebert C, Grünewald K. The full-length cell-cell fusogen EFF-1 is monomeric and upright on the membrane. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3912 pubmed publisher
    ..we present the electron cryo microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of the Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial fusion failure 1 (EFF-1) protein natively anchored in cell-derived membrane vesicles...
  2. Smurova K, Podbilewicz B. RAB-5- and DYNAMIN-1-Mediated Endocytosis of EFF-1 Fusogen Controls Cell-Cell Fusion. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1517-1527 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of dynamin or RAB-5 caused EFF-1 mislocalization to all apical membrane domains and excessive fusion. Thus, internalization of EFF-1 is a safety mechanism preventing excessive cell fusion. ..
  3. Oren Suissa M, Gattegno T, Kravtsov V, Podbilewicz B. Extrinsic Repair of Injured Dendrites as a Paradigm for Regeneration by Fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2017;206:215-230 pubmed publisher
    ..EFF-1 is essential for dendritic pruning after injury and extrinsic AFF-1 mediates dendrite fusion to bypass injuries. ..
  4. Fernandes J, Sternberg P. The tailless ortholog nhr-67 regulates patterning of gene expression and morphogenesis in the C. elegans vulva. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e69 pubmed
    ..We postulate that the differential levels and combinatorial patterns of lin-11, cog-1, and nhr-67 expression are a part of a regulatory code for the mature vulval cell types...
  5. del Campo J, Opoku Serebuoh E, Isaacson A, Scranton V, Tucker M, Han M, et al. Fusogenic activity of EFF-1 is regulated via dynamic localization in fusing somatic cells of C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2005;15:413-23 pubmed
    ..Because EFF-1 appears evolutionarily unique to nematodes, multiple mechanisms may have evolved for controlled plasma-membrane fusion in development. ..
  6. Yang Y, Zhang Y, Li W, Jiang Y, Zhu Z, Hu H, et al. Spectraplakin Induces Positive Feedback between Fusogens and the Actin Cytoskeleton to Promote Cell-Cell Fusion. Dev Cell. 2017;41:107-120.e4 pubmed publisher
  7. Mason D, Rabinowitz J, Portman D. dmd-3, a doublesex-related gene regulated by tra-1, governs sex-specific morphogenesis in C. elegans. Development. 2008;135:2373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that an important conserved function of DM genes is to link the general sex determination hierarchy to specific effectors of differentiation and morphogenesis. ..
  8. Neumann B, Coakley S, Giordano Santini R, Linton C, Lee E, Nakagawa A, et al. EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway. Nature. 2015;517:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PS functions as a 'save-me' signal for the distal fragment, allowing conserved apoptotic cell clearance molecules to function in re-establishing axonal integrity during regeneration of the nervous system. ..
  9. Smurova K, Podbilewicz B. Endocytosis regulates membrane localization and function of the fusogen EFF-1. Small Gtpases. 2017;8:177-180 pubmed publisher
    ..EFF-1 (Epithelial Fusion Failure 1), a member of the FF family, is a type I membrane glycoprotein that is essential for most cell fusions ..