Gene Symbol: cdc-42
Description: Cell division control protein 42 homolog
Alias: Cell division control protein 42 homolog
Species: Caenorhabditis elegans
Products:     cdc-42

Top Publications

  1. Schonegg S, Hyman A. CDC-42 and RHO-1 coordinate acto-myosin contractility and PAR protein localization during polarity establishment in C. elegans embryos. Development. 2006;133:3507-16 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that RHO-1 couples the polarization of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton with the proper segregation of CDC-42, which, in turn, localizes PAR-6 to the anterior cortex. ..
  2. Welchman D, Mathies L, Ahringer J. Similar requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in diverse cell types. Dev Biol. 2007;305:347-57 pubmed
    ..We also propose a novel role for primordial germ cells in mediating coalescence of the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad. These results indicate that CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/aPKC complex function together in diverse cell types. ..
  3. Aceto D, Beers M, Kemphues K. Interaction of PAR-6 with CDC-42 is required for maintenance but not establishment of PAR asymmetry in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2006;299:386-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the CDC-42 interaction with PAR-6 is not required for the initial establishment of asymmetry but is required for maximal cortical accumulation of PAR-6 and to maintain its asymmetry. ..
  4. Hikita T, Qadota H, Tsuboi D, Taya S, Moerman D, Kaibuchi K. Identification of a novel Cdc42 GEF that is localized to the PAT-3-mediated adhesive structure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:139-45 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that UIG-1 links a PAT-3/UNC-112 complex to the CDC-42 signaling pathway during muscle formation. ..
  5. Beatty A, Morton D, Kemphues K. PAR-2, LGL-1 and the CDC-42 GAP CHIN-1 act in distinct pathways to maintain polarity in the C. elegans embryo. Development. 2013;140:2005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that, in addition to its primary role in regulating the size of the anterior cortical domain via its binding to PAR-6, CDC-42 has a secondary role in regulating cortical myosin that is not dependent on PAR-6...
  6. Hsieh H, Hsu T, Jiang H, Wu Y. Integrin ? PAT-2/CDC-42 signaling is required for muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002663 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level. ..
  7. Gotta M, Abraham M, Ahringer J. CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2001;11:482-8 pubmed
    ..elegans embryo, and provide evidence that the interaction of CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex has been evolutionarily conserved as a functional unit. ..
  8. Motegi F, Sugimoto A. Sequential functioning of the ECT-2 RhoGEF, RHO-1 and CDC-42 establishes cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:978-85 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that a local change in the function of ECT-2 and RHO-1 links the centrosomal polarity cue with the polarization of the cell cortex. ..
  9. Demarco R, Struckhoff E, Lundquist E. The Rac GTP exchange factor TIAM-1 acts with CDC-42 and the guidance receptor UNC-40/DCC in neuronal protrusion and axon guidance. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002665 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that Rac GTPase activity is controlled by different GEFs in distinct axon guidance contexts, explaining how Rac GTPases can specifically control multiple cellular functions. ..

More Information


  1. Kay A, Hunter C. CDC-42 regulates PAR protein localization and function to control cellular and embryonic polarity in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2001;11:474-81 pubmed
    ..Combined with the recent biochemical analysis of their mammalian homologs, these results simultaneously identify both a regulator of the PAR proteins, activated Cdc42, and effectors for Cdc42, the PAR complex. ..
  2. Balklava Z, Pant S, Fares H, Grant B. Genome-wide analysis identifies a general requirement for polarity proteins in endocytic traffic. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1066-73 pubmed
    ..Consistent with these results, we found that tagged CDC-42/Cdc42 is enriched on recycling endosomes in C. elegans and mammalian cells, suggesting a direct function in the regulation of transport. ..
  3. Schonegg S, Constantinescu A, Hoege C, Hyman A. The Rho GTPase-activating proteins RGA-3 and RGA-4 are required to set the initial size of PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14976-81 pubmed
    ..elegans embryos. ..
  4. Kumfer K, Cook S, Squirrell J, Eliceiri K, Peel N, O Connell K, et al. CGEF-1 and CHIN-1 regulate CDC-42 activity during asymmetric division in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..CHIN-1 restricted NMY-2 recruitment to the anterior during maintenance phase, consistent with its role in polarizing CDC-42 activity during this phase. ..
  5. Lucanic M, Cheng H. A RAC/CDC-42-independent GIT/PIX/PAK signaling pathway mediates cell migration in C. elegans. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000269 pubmed publisher
  6. Norman K, Fazzio R, Mellem J, Espelt M, Strange K, Beckerle M, et al. The Rho/Rac-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 regulates rhythmic behaviors in C. elegans. Cell. 2005;123:119-32 pubmed
  7. Walck Shannon E, Lucas B, Chin Sang I, Reiner D, Kumfer K, Cochran H, et al. CDC-42 Orients Cell Migration during Epithelial Intercalation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Epidermis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006415 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a previously uncharacterized role for polarized CDC-42, in conjunction with PAR-6, PAR-3 and an Eph receptor, during epithelial intercalation. ..
  8. Marston D, Higgins C, Peters K, Cupp T, Dickinson D, Pani A, et al. MRCK-1 Drives Apical Constriction in C. elegans by Linking Developmental Patterning to Force Generation. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal crucial links that can tie spatial information to local force generation to drive morphogenesis. ..
  9. Etheridge T, Oczypok E, Lehmann S, Fields B, Shephard F, Jacobson L, et al. Calpains mediate integrin attachment complex maintenance of adult muscle in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002471 pubmed publisher
    ..Since C. elegans lacks satellite cells, this mechanism is intrinsic to the muscles and raises the question if such a mechanism also exists in higher metazoans. ..
  10. Neukomm L, Zeng S, Frei A, Huegli P, Hengartner M. Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:845-53 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. ..
  11. Alan J, Struckhoff E, Lundquist E. Multiple cytoskeletal pathways and PI3K signaling mediate CDC-42-induced neuronal protrusion in C. elegans. Small Gtpases. 2013;4:208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These pathways might be relevant to developmental events such as axon pathfinding as well as disease states such as metastatic melanoma. ..
  12. Caruso M, Jenna S, Beaulne S, Lee E, Bergeron A, Chauve C, et al. Biochemical clustering of monomeric GTPases of the Ras superfamily. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:936-44 pubmed
    ..Hence we propose a novel phylobiochemical classification of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. ..
  13. Wang S, Low T, Nishimura Y, Golé L, Yu W, Motegi F. Cortical forces and CDC-42 control clustering of PAR proteins for Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:988-995 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles described here would apply to other pattern formation processes that rely on local modification of cortical actomyosin and PAR proteins. ..
  14. Chen W, Lim H, Lim L. The CDC42 homologue from Caenorhabditis elegans. Complementation of yeast mutation. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13280-5 pubmed
    ..The developmental expression pattern of mRNA and is biochemical properties of its encoded protein which are closely related to CErac1 suggest that the two p21s might be involved in related biological processes. ..
  15. Lohmer L, Clay M, Naegeli K, Chi Q, Ziel J, Hagedorn E, et al. A Sensitized Screen for Genes Promoting Invadopodia Function In Vivo: CDC-42 and Rab GDI-1 Direct Distinct Aspects of Invadopodia Formation. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005786 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies represent the first in vivo screen for genes regulating invadopodia and demonstrate that invadopodia formation requires the integration of distinct cellular processes that are coordinated by an extracellular cue. ..
  16. Zilberman Y, Abrams J, Anderson D, Nance J. Cdc42 regulates junctional actin but not cell polarization in the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3729-3744 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism for inhibiting junctional CDC-42 to control actin organization and AJ protein levels during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  17. Giuliani C, Troglio F, Bai Z, Patel F, Zucconi A, Malabarba M, et al. Requirements for F-BAR proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 in actin dynamics and membrane trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte growth and embryonic epidermal morphogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000675 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that TOCA proteins control tissues morphogenesis by coordinating Clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking with WAVE and N-WASP-dependent actin-dynamics. ..
  18. Jenna S, Caruso M, Emadali A, Nguyen D, Dominguez M, Li S, et al. Regulation of membrane trafficking by a novel Cdc42-related protein in Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1629-39 pubmed
    ..Hence, our data demonstrate a function for CRP-1 in the regulation of membrane trafficking in a subset of cells with epithelial characteristics. ..
  19. Ouellette M, Martin E, Lacoste Caron G, Hamiche K, Jenna S. Spatial control of active CDC-42 during collective migration of hypodermal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016;8:313-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that RGA-7 controls collective migration and junction formation between epithelial cells by spatially restricting active CDC-42 within cell-cell junctions. ..
  20. Choi M, Yoo A, Greenwald I. sel-11 and cdc-42, two negative modulators of LIN-12/Notch activity in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11885 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results underscore the multiplicity of negative regulatory mechanisms that impact on lin-12/Notch activity and suggest novel mechanisms by which constitutive lin-12/Notch activity might be exacerbated in cancer. ..
  21. Waaijers S, Muñoz J, Berends C, Ramalho J, Goerdayal S, Low T, et al. A tissue-specific protein purification approach in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies novel interaction partners of DLG-1/Discs large. BMC Biol. 2016;14:66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we conclude that MAPH-1.1 is a microtubule-associated protein of the MAP1 family and a candidate neuron-specific interaction partner of DLG-1. ..
  22. Chan E, Nance J. Mechanisms of CDC-42 activation during contact-induced cell polarization. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1692-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that radial polarization results from a competition between RhoGEFs, which activate CDC-42 throughout the cortex, and the RhoGAP PAC-1, which inactivates CDC-42 at cell contacts...
  23. Zhang Y, Kubiseski T. Caenorhabditis elegans wsp-1 regulation of synaptic function at the neuromuscular junction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23040-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that WSP-1 plays an essential role to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton at the neuronal active zone of the neuromuscular junction to restrain synaptic vesicle release. ..
  24. Chen W, Chen S, Yap S, Lim L. The Caenorhabditis elegans p21-activated kinase (CePAK) colocalizes with CeRac1 and CDC42Ce at hypodermal cell boundaries during embryo elongation. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26362-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, CeRac1 and CDC42Ce are found at the same location, which might point to their common involvement in hypodermal cell fusion, a crucial morphogenetic event for nematode development. ..