Gene Symbol: hprK
Description: HPr kinase/phosphorylase
Species: Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168

Top Publications

  1. Pompeo F, Granet Y, Lavergne J, Grangeasse C, Nessler S, Jault J, et al. Regulation and mutational analysis of the HPr kinase/phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis. Biochemistry. 2003;42:6762-71 pubmed
    ..Gram-positive bacteria, catabolite repression is mediated by a bifunctional enzyme, the HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HprK/P)...
  2. Poncet S, Mijakovic I, Nessler S, Gueguen Chaignon V, Chaptal V, Galinier A, et al. HPr kinase/phosphorylase, a Walker motif A-containing bifunctional sensor enzyme controlling catabolite repression in Gram-positive bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1697:123-35 pubmed
    ..repression (CCR) in Gram-positive bacteria is regulated by the bifunctional enzyme HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HprK/P)...
  3. Lavergne J, Jault J, Galinier A. Insights into the functioning of Bacillus subtilis HPr kinase/phosphatase: affinity for its protein substrates and role of cations and phosphate. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6218-25 pubmed
    In Bacillus subtilis, carbon catabolite repression is mediated by the HPr kinase/phosphatase (HprK/P) which catalyzes both an ATP-dependent phosphorylation and a dephosphorylation on Ser-46 of either HPr (histidine-containing protein) or ..
  4. Bertram R, W nsche A, Sprehe M, Hillen W. Regulated expression of HPrK/P does not affect carbon catabolite repression of the xyn operon and of rocG in Bacillus subtilis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;259:147-52 pubmed publisher
    HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HPrK/P), a central metabolic regulator in many Gram-positive bacteria, reversibly phosphorylates HPr and Crh, thus controlling their activities as effectors of CcpA predominantly in carbon catabolite repression (..
  5. Meyer F, Jules M, Mehne F, Le Coq D, Landmann J, G rke B, et al. Malate-mediated carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis involves the HPrK/CcpA pathway. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The repression strength of target promoters was similar to that observed in steady-state growth conditions, although it took somewhat longer to reach the second steady-state of expression when cells were shifted to malate...
  6. Reizer J, Hoischen C, Titgemeyer F, Rivolta C, Rabus R, Stülke J, et al. A novel protein kinase that controls carbon catabolite repression in bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:1157-69 pubmed
    ..subtilis, the ptsK mutant is insensitive to transcriptional regulation by catabolite repression. The reported results advance our understanding of phosphorylation-dependent carbon control mechanisms in Gram-positive bacteria. ..
  7. Robinson C, Rivolta C, Karamata D, Moir A. The product of the yvoC (gerF) gene of Bacillus subtilis is required for spore germination. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 11):3105-9 pubmed
    ..Two other null mutants in this chromosomal region showed a clear phenotype: the nagA gene is required for growth on N-acetylglucosamine, whereas a null mutation in yvoB (ptsK) affects colony formation from single cells. ..
  8. Kravanja M, Engelmann R, Dossonnet V, Blüggel M, Meyer H, Frank R, et al. The hprK gene of Enterococcus faecalis encodes a novel bifunctional enzyme: the HPr kinase/phosphatase. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:59-66 pubmed
    ..The hprK gene from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced...
  9. Galinier A, Kravanja M, Engelmann R, Hengstenberg W, Kilhoffer M, Deutscher J, et al. New protein kinase and protein phosphatase families mediate signal transduction in bacterial catabolite repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:1823-8 pubmed
    ..We here report cloning of the Bacillus subtilis hprK and hprP genes and characterization of the encoded HPr kinase and P-Ser-HPr phosphatase...

More Information


  1. Galinier A, Haiech J, Kilhoffer M, Jaquinod M, Stülke J, Deutscher J, et al. The Bacillus subtilis crh gene encodes a HPr-like protein involved in carbon catabolite repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8439-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CCR of certain catabolic operons requires, in addition to CcpA, ATP-dependent phosphorylation of Crh, and HPr at Ser-46. ..
  2. Mijakovic I, Poncet S, Galinier A, Monedero V, Fieulaine S, Janin J, et al. Pyrophosphate-producing protein dephosphorylation by HPr kinase/phosphorylase: a relic of early life?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HprK/P), the bifunctional sensor enzyme for catabolite repression, phosphorylates HPr, a phosphocarrier protein of the ..
  3. Hanson K, Steinhauer K, Reizer J, Hillen W, Stülke J. HPr kinase/phosphatase of Bacillus subtilis: expression of the gene and effects of mutations on enzyme activity, growth and carbon catabolite repression. Microbiology. 2002;148:1805-11 pubmed
    HPr kinase/phosphatase (HPrK/P) is the key protein in regulation of carbon metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and many other Gram-positive bacteria...
  4. Ramstrom H, Sanglier S, Leize Wagner E, Philippe C, Van Dorsselaer A, Haiech J. Properties and regulation of the bifunctional enzyme HPr kinase/phosphatase in Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1174-85 pubmed
    The bifunctional allosteric enzyme HPr kinase/phosphatase (HPrK/P) from Bacillus subtilis is a key enzyme in the main mechanism of carbon catabolite repression/activation (i.e...