Gene Symbol: 2
Description: spike protein
Species: Avian infectious bronchitis virus

Top Publications

  1. Brierley I, Boursnell M, Binns M, Bilimoria B, Blok V, Brown T, et al. An efficient ribosomal frame-shifting signal in the polymerase-encoding region of the coronavirus IBV. EMBO J. 1987;6:3779-85 pubmed
    ..The nature of the products was confirmed by their reactivity with antisera raised against defined portions of the flanking marker gene. This is the first non-retroviral example of ribosomal frame-shifting in higher eukaryotes...
  2. Yan F, Zhao Y, Yue W, Yao J, Lihua L, Ji W, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus isolates from China. Avian Dis. 2011;55:451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study indicate that different IBV strains cocirculate in the chicken population in China...
  3. Zheng J, Yamada Y, Fung T, Huang M, Chia R, Liu D. Identification of N-linked glycosylation sites in the spike protein and their functional impact on the replication and infectivity of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture. Virology. 2018;513:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization of these and other uncharacterized sites may reveal novel aspects of N-linked glycosylation in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis. ..
  4. Promkuntod N, van Eijndhoven R, De Vrieze G, Grone A, Verheije M. Mapping of the receptor-binding domain and amino acids critical for attachment in the spike protein of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Virology. 2014;448:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..253 amino acids of the spike are both required and sufficient for binding to chicken respiratory tract in an ?-2,3-sialic acid-dependent manner...
  5. Boursnell M, Brown T. Sequencing of coronavirus IBV genomic RNA: a 195-base open reading frame encoded by mRNA B. Gene. 1984;29:87-92 pubmed
    ..This region contains the complete coding sequences for mRNA B which are additional to those present in mRNA A. Two open reading frames are present, predicting proteins of Mrs 7500 and 9500. ..
  6. Boursnell M, Brown T, Binns M. Sequence of the membrane protein gene from avian coronavirus IBV. Virus Res. 1984;1:303-13 pubmed
    ..This is in agreement with the molecular weight of 23 000 reported for the unglycosylated form of the membrane polypeptide...
  7. Yamada Y, Liu D. Proteolytic activation of the spike protein at a novel RRRR/S motif is implicated in furin-dependent entry, syncytium formation, and infectivity of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cultured cells. J Virol. 2009;83:8744-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that proteolysis at a novel XXXR/S motif in the S2 subunit might be a common mechanism for the entry of CoV into cells...
  8. Bochkov Y, Tosi G, Massi P, Drygin V. Phylogenetic analysis of partial S1 and N gene sequences of infectious bronchitis virus isolates from Italy revealed genetic diversity and recombination. Virus Genes. 2007;35:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, three variant IBVs of novel Italy-02 genotype, which had 96.7-99.2% S1 gene nucleotide identity with each other, belonged to three separate subgroups based on N gene sequences...
  9. Shahwan K, Hesse M, Mork A, Herrler G, Winter C. Sialic acid binding properties of soluble coronavirus spike (S1) proteins: differences between infectious bronchitis virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Viruses. 2013;5:1924-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins. ..

More Information


  1. Cavanagh D, Picault J, Gough R, Hess M, Mawditt K, Britton P. Variation in the spike protein of the 793/B type of infectious bronchitis virus, in the field and during alternate passage in chickens and embryonated eggs. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no change in pathogenicity. This is the first demonstration at gene sequence level of host-driven selection for infectious bronchitis virus...
  2. Binns M, Boursnell M, Cavanagh D, Pappin D, Brown T. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the spike protein of the coronavirus IBV. J Gen Virol. 1985;66 ( Pt 4):719-26 pubmed
    ..The amino acid analysis also reveals the presence of an 18 amino acid putative signal sequence on the primary translation product which is not present on the mature S1 polypeptide. ..
  3. Sumi V, Singh S, Dhama K, Gowthaman V, Barathidasan R, Sukumar K. Isolation and molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis virus from recent outbreaks in broiler flocks reveals emergence of novel strain in India. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:1791-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thailand) and India/NMK/72/IVRI/10 shared greater than 99 % homology with 4/91 pathogenic strain (UK), JP/Wakayama/2/2004 (Japan) and TA03 (China), while the two Indian IBV isolates shared 73 % identity between them...
  4. Promkuntod N, Wickramasinghe I, De Vrieze G, Gr ne A, Verheije M. Contributions of the S2 spike ectodomain to attachment and host range of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Res. 2013;177:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, the interplay between S1 and S2 subunits of spikes from the same viral origin might finally determine the avidity and specificity of virus attachment and thus viral host range...
  5. Boursnell M, Binns M, Brown T. Sequencing of coronavirus IBV genomic RNA: three open reading frames in the 5' 'unique' region of mRNA D. J Gen Virol. 1985;66 ( Pt 10):2253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence also predicts a hydrophobic, potentially membrane-anchoring, region in the N terminal half of the 12.4K polypeptide, and a hydrophilic C terminus...
  6. Boursnell M, Binns M, Foulds I, Brown T. Sequences of the nucleocapsid genes from two strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus. J Gen Virol. 1985;66 ( Pt 3):573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The major difference between the sequences determined for the two IBV strains is that the 3' non-coding region of the Beaudette strain contains a 184 base segment which is not present in the M41 strain...
  7. McFarlane R, Verma R. Sequence analysis of the gene coding for the S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains from New Zealand. Virus Genes. 2008;37:351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5% nucleotide and 98.7% amino acid homology with the Australian Vic S strain. Deduced amino acid sequence of the S1 glycoprotein indicated differences between strains that were, in general, consistent with virus neutralization patterns. ..
  8. Ziebuhr J, Snijder E, Gorbalenya A. Virus-encoded proteinases and proteolytic processing in the Nidovirales. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:853-79 pubmed publisher
  9. Boursnell M, Brown T, Foulds I, Green P, Tomley F, Binns M. Completion of the sequence of the genome of the coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 1):57-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of this, and because of the characteristics of the sequence in the region immediately upstream of its start codon, other mechanisms of translation, such as ribosome slippage, must be postulated...
  10. Toro H, Zhang J, Gallardo R, van Santen V, van Ginkel F, Joiner K, et al. S1 of distinct IBV population expressed from recombinant adenovirus confers protection against challenge. Avian Dis. 2014;58:211-5 pubmed
    ..The fact that a single vaccination with Ad/IBVS1.C2 provides protection against IBV challenge is promising, because Ad-vectored vaccines can be mass delivered by in ovo inoculation using automated in ovo injectors. ..