Outi Vaarala

Summary

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Diab Rep 13:601-7. 2013
  2. pmc Gut microbiota and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Rev Diabet Stud 9:251-9. 2012
  3. pmc Fecal microbiota composition differs between children with β-cell autoimmunity and those without
    Marcus C de Goffau
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Diabetes 62:1238-44. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Is the origin of type 1 diabetes in the gut?
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:271-6. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint The gut as a regulator of early inflammation in type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18:241-7. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Enhanced levels of cow's milk antibodies in infancy in children who develop type 1 diabetes later in childhood
    Kristiina Luopajarvi
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Diabetes 9:434-41. 2008
  7. doi request reprint Dietary intervention in infancy and later signs of beta-cell autoimmunity
    Mikael Knip
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    N Engl J Med 363:1900-8. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Combined T regulatory cell and Th2 expression profile identifies children with cow's milk allergy
    Emma M Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Immunol 136:16-20. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the humoral immune response to islet antigen 2 in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
    Anna Mäkinen
    Scientific Laboratory, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Biomedicum I, PO Box 63, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Endocrinol 159:19-26. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Human leukocyte antigen (DR1)-DQB1*0501 and (DR15)-DQB1*0602 haplotypes are associated with humoral responses to early food allergens in children
    Emma M Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 152:169-77. 2010

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. doi request reprint Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Diab Rep 13:601-7. 2013
    ..Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota. ..
  2. pmc Gut microbiota and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Rev Diabet Stud 9:251-9. 2012
    ..Despite the complex interaction of microbiota, host, environment, and disease mechanisms, gut microbiota are promising novel targets in the prevention of type 1 diabetes. ..
  3. pmc Fecal microbiota composition differs between children with β-cell autoimmunity and those without
    Marcus C de Goffau
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Diabetes 62:1238-44. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Is the origin of type 1 diabetes in the gut?
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:271-6. 2012
    ..Thus, the interventions, aiming to prevent or treat type 1 diabetes in humans, should be targeting the gut immune system...
  5. ncbi request reprint The gut as a regulator of early inflammation in type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18:241-7. 2011
    ..This review discusses the recent research on these mechanisms, which may reveal novel pathogenic pathways and new possibilities for prevention of type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
  6. doi request reprint Enhanced levels of cow's milk antibodies in infancy in children who develop type 1 diabetes later in childhood
    Kristiina Luopajarvi
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Diabetes 9:434-41. 2008
    ..Early exposure to cow's milk (CM) proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
  7. doi request reprint Dietary intervention in infancy and later signs of beta-cell autoimmunity
    Mikael Knip
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    N Engl J Med 363:1900-8. 2010
    ..We tested the hypothesis that supplementing breast milk with highly hydrolyzed milk formula would decrease the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in such children...
  8. doi request reprint Combined T regulatory cell and Th2 expression profile identifies children with cow's milk allergy
    Emma M Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Immunol 136:16-20. 2010
    ..The expression profile of both Th2- and T regulatory cell-related genes thus reflects the clinical activity of CMA. Tolerance, in contrast, is not characterized by activation of circulating T regulatory cells...
  9. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the humoral immune response to islet antigen 2 in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
    Anna Mäkinen
    Scientific Laboratory, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Biomedicum I, PO Box 63, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Endocrinol 159:19-26. 2008
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Human leukocyte antigen (DR1)-DQB1*0501 and (DR15)-DQB1*0602 haplotypes are associated with humoral responses to early food allergens in children
    Emma M Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 152:169-77. 2010
    ..We evaluated whether genes with immunological functions, i.e. human leukocyte antigen (HLA) II, the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) and filaggrin, modulate immune responses to dietary antigens...
  11. ncbi request reprint Dietary insulin as an immunogen and tolerogen
    Minna Tiittanen
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, Laboratory for Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:538-43. 2006
    ..However, our results in infants who developed beta-cell autoimmunity suggest that in this subgroup of children breast milk insulin does not promote tolerance...
  12. ncbi request reprint Hydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity: a randomized clinical trial
    Mikael Knip
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    JAMA 311:2279-87. 2014
    ..Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas do not contain intact proteins...
  13. doi request reprint Interleukin-17 immunity in pediatric Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
    Veera Hölttä
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, Immune Response Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 57:287-92. 2013
    ..The present understanding of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis mainly relies on studies of adult patients. Therefore, we studied the balance between T-effector and regulatory cells in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease...
  14. ncbi request reprint Intestinal cytokine mRNA expression in delayed-type cow's milk allergy
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, Helsinki, Finland
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 43:470-6. 2006
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Inflammatory response and IgE sensitization at early age
    Kirsi Mustonen
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 24:395-401. 2013
    ..We examined the associations between low-grade inflammation and the development of allergic sensitization, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma at the age of 4.5 yr...
  16. ncbi request reprint Cow milk is not responsible for most gastrointestinal immune-like syndromes--evidence from a population-based study
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:1327-35. 2005
    ..Gastrointestinal hypersensitivity to cow milk (CM) may be more common among school-aged children and young adults than previously thought...
  17. ncbi request reprint IL-17 immunity in human type 1 diabetes
    Jarno Honkanen
    Immune Response Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    J Immunol 185:1959-67. 2010
    ..Our findings highlight the role of IL-17 immunity in the pathogenesis of human T1D and point to a potential therapeutic strategy...
  18. ncbi request reprint Pre and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of food allergy
    Erkki Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:243-8. 2008
    ..The interest in modulating commensal bacterial flora with prebiotics and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years...
  19. doi request reprint Poor in vitro induction of FOXP3 and ICOS in type 1 cytokine environment activated T-cells from children with type 1 diabetes
    Jarno Honkanen
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24:635-41. 2008
    ..We set out to study whether an impaired induction of regulatory mechanisms during the generation of T-cell responses upon stimulation is associated with T1D...
  20. doi request reprint Early human enterovirus infections in healthy Swedish children participating in the PRODIA pilot study
    Marja Leena Simonen-Tikka
    Intestinal Viruses Unit, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 84:923-30. 2012
    ..Also it was shown that serotypes belonging to HEV-A species can be detected by means of viral culturing...
  21. doi request reprint Expansion of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes
    Kristiina Luopajarvi
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Diabetes 13:400-7. 2012
    ..Reduced risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been reported in the offspring of mothers with T1D when compared with children of affected fathers...
  22. pmc In Crohn's Disease, Anti-TNF-α Treatment Changes the Balance between Mucosal IL-17, FOXP3, and CD4 Cells
    Veera Hölttä
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
    ISRN Gastroenterol 2012:505432. 2012
    ..05). Conclusions. TNF-α-blocking agents improved intestinal balance between IL-17(+) T-effector and regulatory T cells, although intestinal IL-17 upregulation remained elevated...
  23. ncbi request reprint Immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G antibodies against β-lactoglobulin and gliadin at age 1 associate with immunoglobulin E sensitization at age 6
    Laura Orivuori
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 25:329-37. 2014
    ..Living on a farm has been shown to decrease allergies in children. Our aim was to study whether farm environment affected mucosal tolerance, immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, or allergic diseases...
  24. pmc No serological evidence of influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus infection as a contributing factor in childhood narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Finland
    Krister Melen
    Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    PLoS ONE 8:e68402. 2013
    ..The analysis was based on the presence or absence of antibody response against non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from H1N1pdm09 virus, which was not a component of Pandemrix vaccine...
  25. pmc Reduced CCR4, interleukin-13 and GATA-3 up-regulation in response to type 2 cytokines of cord blood T lymphocytes in infants at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes
    Kristiina Luopajarvi
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Immunology 121:189-96. 2007
    ....
  26. doi request reprint IL-23/IL-17 immunity as a hallmark of Crohn's disease
    Veera Hölttä
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 14:1175-84. 2008
    ..We studied the balance between ileal T-effector cells versus T-regulatory cells in active and inactive Crohn's disease (CD)...
  27. doi request reprint Few associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and environmental factors in 4.5-year-old children
    Kirsi Mustonen
    Environmental Health Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 23:522-8. 2012
    ..Our aim was to examine the effects of different environmental factors on low-grade inflammation measured with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) at the age of 4.5 years...
  28. ncbi request reprint Increased activation of GATA-3, IL-2 and IL-5 of cord blood mononuclear cells in infants with IgE sensitization
    Emma Marschan
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19:132-9. 2008
    ..The immune deviation towards Th2-type immunity developed already in utero and seemed to modulate the pattern of immune response favoring an IgE response to environmental antigens...
  29. pmc Dendritic cells from Crohn's disease patients show aberrant STAT1 and STAT3 signaling
    Janne K Nieminen
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    PLoS ONE 8:e70738. 2013
    ..Our results implicate DC signaling in human CD. Reduced IL-6 responsiveness in pDCs, together with the attenuated IFN-α-induced signaling in both DC subtypes, may contribute to the immunological dysregulation in CD patients...
  30. pmc Serum immune-activation potency and response to anti-TNF-α therapy in Crohn's disease
    Hanne Rintamäki
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FIN 00029, Finland
    World J Gastroenterol 16:5845-51. 2010
    ..To study whether immune-activation stage in serum of adult Crohn's disease (CD) patients correlates with disease activity and with treatment response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy...
  31. doi request reprint Impaired intestinal tolerance in the absence of a functional complement system
    Pirkka T Pekkarinen
    Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 131:1167-75. 2013
    ..Cells of the innate immune system regulate both adaptive immune responses and the maintenance of tolerance, especially in the gut. However, relatively little is known about the effects of complement on lymphocyte homeostasis...
  32. doi request reprint Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on rBet v1 and rMal d1 specific IgA in the saliva of patients with birch pollen allergy
    Laura Piirainen
    National Public Health Institute, Laboratory for Immunobiology, Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 100:338-42. 2008
    ..Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has demonstrated promising results in the treatment and prevention of atopic eczema...
  33. pmc Altered phenotype of peripheral blood dendritic cells in pediatric type 1 diabetes
    Janne K Nieminen
    Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes Care 35:2303-10. 2012
    ..Altered numbers of blood DCs have been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed at characterizing the less well-known phenotypic properties of DCs in T1D...
  34. ncbi request reprint Variation in enterovirus receptor genes
    Ase Karttunen
    Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 70:99-108. 2003
    ..In conclusion, both synonymous and nonsynonymous sequence variability of genes coding for enterovirus and rhinovirus receptors was shown to occur, but no pattern directly specific for type 1 diabetes was found. =..
  35. ncbi request reprint Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease: the role of H1N1 infection and vaccination
    Markku Partinen
    Helsinki Sleep Clinic, Vitalmed Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Electronic address
    Lancet Neurol 13:600-13. 2014
    ..Epidemiological observations from studies in China also suggest a role for H1N1 virus infections as a trigger for narcolepsy. Although the pathological mechanisms are unknown, an H1N1 virus-derived antigen might be the trigger. ..
  36. ncbi request reprint Immunologic activity in the small intestinal mucosa of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes
    Mia Westerholm-Ormio
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 52:2287-95. 2003
    ..Our study supports the hypothesis that a link exists between the gut immune system and type 1 diabetes...
  37. ncbi request reprint Enterovirus infection and activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Salla Saijets
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 70:430-9. 2003
    ..In contrast, human leukocyte antigen-DR expression was not increased by virus infection...
  38. ncbi request reprint Increased IFN-gamma secretion from duodenal biopsy samples in delayed-type cow's milk allergy
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, PO Box 30, FIN 00039 Valio, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 16:439-44. 2005
    ..059). In conclusion, the children with delayed CMA showed up-regulation of IFN-gamma. Interestingly, TGF-beta secretion was up-regulated in those children with delayed CMA who avoided CM suggesting recovery of regulation mechanisms...
  39. pmc New means to monitor the effect of glucocorticoid therapy in children
    Hanne Rintamäki
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Box 281, Helsinki, FIN 00029, Finland
    World J Gastroenterol 16:1104-9. 2010
    ..To study the individual effects of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy on the state of immune activation in patient serum...
  40. ncbi request reprint Aire deficient mice do not develop the same profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies as APECED patients
    Nora Pöntynen
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Autoimmun 27:96-104. 2006
    ..This study indicates that spontaneous induction of tissue-specific autoantibodies similar to APECED does not occur in the rodent model suggesting differences in the immunopathogenic mechanisms between mice and men...
  41. pmc AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland
    Hanna Nohynek
    Department of Vaccines and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    PLoS ONE 7:e33536. 2012
    ..A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups...
  42. ncbi request reprint Anti-insulin activity in IgG-fractions from children with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes and negative for insulin autoantibodies
    Minna Tiittanen
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Autoimmunity 37:45-9. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that formation of immune complexes results in false negative results in tests for IAA but not for GADA...
  43. pmc The "perfect storm" for type 1 diabetes: the complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 57:2555-62. 2008
    ..Herein, we discuss the complex interplay between these factors and raise testable hypotheses that form a fertile area for future investigations as to the role of the gut in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 1 diabetes...
  44. ncbi request reprint Environmental triggers and determinants of type 1 diabetes
    Mikael Knip
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, P O Box 281, FI 00029 Huch, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 54:S125-36. 2005
    ..Accordingly, progression to clinical type 1 diabetes typically requires the unfortunate combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen...
  45. doi request reprint Leaking gut in type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:701-6. 2008
    ..This review discusses the recent research linking the gut and type 1 diabetes, which may reveal novel pathogenic pathways and new possibilities for disease prevention...
  46. ncbi request reprint Enterovirus infection may induce humoral immune response reacting with islet cell autoantigens in humans
    Taina Härkönen
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 69:426-40. 2003
    ..In conclusion, enteroviruses may induce immune responses that react with islet cell autoantigens, which is a concern when a putative inactivated enterovirus vaccine is considered...
  47. doi request reprint Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018--time to act and change the course
    T Haahtela
    Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Allergy 63:634-45. 2008
    ..The current dogma of allergen avoidance has not proved effective in halting the 'epidemic', and it is the Finnish consensus that restoring and strengthening tolerance should more be in focus...