Gunter P Wagner


Affiliation: Yale University
Country: USA


  1. Wagner G, Kenney Hunt J, Pavlicev M, Peck J, Waxman D, Cheverud J. Pleiotropic scaling of gene effects and the 'cost of complexity'. Nature. 2008;452:470-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that evolution of higher organisms does not suffer a 'cost of complexity' because most mutations affect few traits and the size of the effects does not decrease with pleiotropy. ..
  2. Wagner G. The power of negative [theoretical] results. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12851-12852 pubmed publisher
  3. D Souza A, Wagner G. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation: A case for positive pleiotropy between endometrial and malignancy phenotypes. Evol Med Public Health. 2014;2014:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. ..
  4. Wagner G. Two rules for the detection and quantification of epistasis and other interaction effects. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1253:145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These two rules can effectively eliminate the arbitrariness in the definition, detection, and quantification of epistasis or any other interaction effect. ..
  5. Kin K, Nnamani M, Lynch V, Michaelides E, Wagner G. Cell-type phylogenetics and the origin of endometrial stromal cells. Cell Rep. 2015;10:1398-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown analysis confirmed that they are essential for ESC differentiation. We conclude that phylogenetic analysis of cell transcriptomes is a powerful tool for discovery of genes performing cell-type-specific functions. ..
  6. Wagner G, Tong Y, Emera D, Romero R. An evolutionary test of the isoform switching hypothesis of functional progesterone withdrawal for parturition: humans have a weaker repressive effect of PR-A than mice. J Perinat Med. 2012;40:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that, instead, the lower sensitivity of human PR-B to PR-A may be relevant for the maintenance of pregnancy at high progesterone levels and increasing PR-A concentrations towards term. ..
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    Park Y, Nnamani M, Maziarz J, Wagner G. Cis-Regulatory Evolution of Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1), a Terminal Selector Gene for Decidual Stromal Cell Identity. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:3161-3169 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the cis-regulatory activity of a terminal selector gene for decidual stromal cell identity evolved in the stem lineage of eutherians supporting a model where decidual cells are a eutherian innovation. ..
  8. Wagner G. The measurement theory of fitness. Evolution. 2010;64:1358-76 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, this theory identifies the correct scale for measuring gene interaction with respect to fitness and shows that different scales may lead to wrong conclusions. ..
  9. Wagner G, Lynch V. Evolutionary novelties. Curr Biol. 2010;20:R48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular and genomic tools are being brought to bear on this question that we are finally in a position to answer Mivart's challenge and explain one of the most fundamental questions of biology: how does novelty arise in evolution? ..

More Information


  1. Wagner G, Zhang J. The pleiotropic structure of the genotype-phenotype map: the evolvability of complex organisms. Nat Rev Genet. 2011;12:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has major implications for the evolvability of complex organisms and the mapping of disease-causing mutations. ..
  2. Wagner G, Kin K, Lynch V. Measurement of mRNA abundance using RNA-seq data: RPKM measure is inconsistent among samples. Theory Biosci. 2012;131:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a slight modification of RPKM that eliminates this inconsistency and call it TPM for transcripts per million. TPM respects the average invariance and eliminates statistical biases inherent in the RPKM measure. ..
  3. Nnamani M, Ganguly S, Erkenbrack E, Lynch V, Mizoue L, Tong Y, et al. A Derived Allosteric Switch Underlies the Evolution of Conditional Cooperativity between HOXA11 and FOXO1. Cell Rep. 2016;15:2097-2108 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that TF function can evolve through changes affecting the functional output of a pre-existing protein complex. ..
  4. Chavan A, Bhullar B, Wagner G. What was the ancestral function of decidual stromal cells? A model for the evolution of eutherian pregnancy. Placenta. 2016;40:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We further propose that extended gestation evolved independently in the major eutherian clades explaining why the major lineages of eutherian mammals differ with respect to the mechanisms maintaining pregnancy. ..
  5. Lynch V, Roth J, Wagner G. Adaptive evolution of Hox-gene homeodomains after cluster duplications. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:86 pubmed
    ..These results further suggest that adaptive evolution actively contributed to Hox-gene homeodomain functions. ..
  6. Wagner G, Vargas A. On the nature of thumbs. Genome Biol. 2008;9:213 pubmed publisher
    ..This asymmetric expression correlates with independent morphological evolutionary variation of digit 1. ..
  7. Wagner G, Nnamani M, Chavan A, Maziarz J, Protopapas S, Condon J, et al. Evolution of Gene Expression in the Uterine Cervix related to Steroid Signaling: Conserved features in the regulation of cervical ripening. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4439 pubmed publisher
    ..Western-blotting on mouse cervix confirmed large scale histone de-acetylation in labor. This finding may have important implications for the control of premature cervical ripening and prevention of preterm birth in humans. ..
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    Wagner G. Evolutionary genetics: the nature of hidden genetic variation unveiled. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R958-60 pubmed
  9. Kin K, Maziarz J, Chavan A, Kamat M, Vasudevan S, Birt A, et al. The Transcriptomic Evolution of Mammalian Pregnancy: Gene Expression Innovations in Endometrial Stromal Fibroblasts. Genome Biol Evol. 2016;8:2459-73 pubmed publisher
  10. Chavan A, Griffith O, Wagner G. The inflammation paradox in the evolution of mammalian pregnancy: turning a foe into a friend. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2017;47:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this model allows us to understand the differences between 'good inflammation' and 'bad inflammation'. Further, it allows us to understand the influence of inflammation on the outcome of pregnancy and maternal health. ..
  11. Armstrong D, McGowen M, Weckle A, Pantham P, Caravas J, Agnew D, et al. The core transcriptome of mammalian placentas and the divergence of expression with placental shape. Placenta. 2017;57:71-78 pubmed publisher
    ..115 genes are important for the core functions of the placenta in all eutherian species analyzed. The molecular functions and pathways enriched in the core placenta align with the evolutionarily conserved functionality of the placenta. ..
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    Wagner G, Takahashi K, Lynch V, Prohaska S, Fried C, Stadler P, et al. Molecular evolution of duplicated ray finned fish HoxA clusters: increased synonymous substitution rate and asymmetrical co-divergence of coding and non-coding sequences. J Mol Evol. 2005;60:665-76 pubmed
    ..e., putative cis-regulatory elements. These results suggest that the 5' HoxA genes in the same cluster belong to a co-evolutionary unit in which genes have a tendency to diverge together. ..