R G Shulman

Summary

Affiliation: Yale University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Baseline brain energy supports the state of consciousness
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11096-101. 2009
  2. pmc Cerebral energetics and the glycogen shunt: neurochemical basis of functional imaging
    R G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6417-22. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Glycogen turnover forms lactate during exercise
    Robert G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, MR Research Center, New Haven, CT 06520 8043, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 33:157-62. 2005
  4. pmc The "glycogen shunt" in exercising muscle: A role for glycogen in muscle energetics and fatigue
    R G Shulman
    Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry and Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:457-61. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint 13C NMR of intermediary metabolism: implications for systemic physiology
    R G Shulman
    Department of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 63:15-48. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Functional imaging studies: linking mind and basic neuroscience
    R G Shulman
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8024, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:11-20. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Biophysical basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Center for Research in Metabolism and Physiology, Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Q Rev Biophys 35:287-325. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Cerebral metabolism and consciousness
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, Schools of Medicine and Engineering, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    C R Biol 326:253-73. 2003
  9. pmc A BOLD search for baseline
    Robert G Shulman
    Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance QNMR and Magnetic Resonance Research Center MRRC, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Neuroimage 36:277-81. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Lactate efflux and the neuroenergetic basis of brain function
    R G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8024, USA
    NMR Biomed 14:389-96. 2001

Research Grants

  1. NMR STUDIES OF METABOLISM AND REGULATION IN CELLS
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1990
  2. NMR STUDIES OF METABOLISM AND REGULATION IN CELLS
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1993
  3. ODOR MAPS IN OLFACTORY BULB BY FMRI
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2001
  4. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF RAT BRAIN BY IN VIVO NMR
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1999
  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF RAT BRAIN BY IN VIVO NMR
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications32

  1. pmc Baseline brain energy supports the state of consciousness
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11096-101. 2009
    ..This usage of high brain energies when the person is in the "state" of consciousness differs from most studies, which attend the smaller energy increments observed during the stimulations that form the "contents" of that state...
  2. pmc Cerebral energetics and the glycogen shunt: neurochemical basis of functional imaging
    R G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6417-22. 2001
    ..Although the OGI changes during activation, the energies required per neurotransmitter release (neuronal) and clearance (glial) are constant over a wide range of brain activity...
  3. ncbi request reprint Glycogen turnover forms lactate during exercise
    Robert G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, MR Research Center, New Haven, CT 06520 8043, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 33:157-62. 2005
    ..In this model, contributions to fatigue should be looked for in the flux of glucose through glycogen rather than in the concentrations of fuel...
  4. pmc The "glycogen shunt" in exercising muscle: A role for glycogen in muscle energetics and fatigue
    R G Shulman
    Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry and Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:457-61. 2001
    ..The model provides a possible mechanism for muscle fatigue, suggesting that at low but nonzero glycogen concentrations, there is not enough glycogen to supply millisecond energy needs...
  5. ncbi request reprint 13C NMR of intermediary metabolism: implications for systemic physiology
    R G Shulman
    Department of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 63:15-48. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate how intermediary metabolism serves to connect biochemistry with systemic physiology when measured and analyzed by in vivo NMR methods...
  6. ncbi request reprint Functional imaging studies: linking mind and basic neuroscience
    R G Shulman
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8024, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:11-20. 2001
    ..Functional imaging signals arise from changes in the neurophysiological parameters of glucose and oxygen consumption mediated by blood flow...
  7. ncbi request reprint Biophysical basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Center for Research in Metabolism and Physiology, Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Q Rev Biophys 35:287-325. 2002
    ..These biophysical experiments have established relationships between energy consumption and neuronal activity that provide novel insights into the nature of brain function and the interpretation of fMRI data...
  8. ncbi request reprint Cerebral metabolism and consciousness
    Robert G Shulman
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, Schools of Medicine and Engineering, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    C R Biol 326:253-73. 2003
    ....
  9. pmc A BOLD search for baseline
    Robert G Shulman
    Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance QNMR and Magnetic Resonance Research Center MRRC, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Neuroimage 36:277-81. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Lactate efflux and the neuroenergetic basis of brain function
    R G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8024, USA
    NMR Biomed 14:389-96. 2001
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Functional energy metabolism: in vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy evidence for coupling of cerebral glucose consumption and glutamatergic neuronalactivity
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, Newhaven, Conn, USA
    Dev Neurosci 20:321-30. 1998
    ..These findings bear upon a number of hypotheses concerning the neurophysiological basis of brain functional imaging methods...
  12. pmc In vivo 13C NMR measurements of cerebral glutamine synthesis as evidence for glutamate-glutamine cycling
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8043, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2699-704. 1997
    ....
  13. pmc Stoichiometric coupling of brain glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal activity
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:316-21. 1998
    ..Another implication of this result is that brain activation studies, which map cortical oxidative Glc metabolism, provide a quantitative measure of synaptic glutamate release...
  14. ncbi request reprint In vivo (13)C NMR measurement of neurotransmitter glutamate cycling, anaplerosis and TCA cycle flux in rat brain during
    N R Sibson
    Departments of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Neurochem 76:975-89. 2001
    ..These findings indicate that anaplerotic glutamine synthesis is coupled to nitrogen removal from the brain (ammonia detoxification) under hyperammonemic conditions...
  15. ncbi request reprint NMR of glycogen in exercise
    T B Price
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Nutr Soc 58:851-9. 1999
    ..The present review focuses on basic 13C NMR and gives results from selected studies...
  16. ncbi request reprint Flux control in the rat gastrocnemius glycogen synthesis pathway by in vivo 13C/31P NMR spectroscopy
    J R Chase
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E598-607. 2001
    ..03 mM) effects a supralinear increase in the in vitro velocity of GSase, from 14.6 to 26.1 mU. kg(-1). min(-1) (1.8-fold). All measurements suggest that the majority of the flux control of muscle glycogen synthesis is at the GT/Hk step...
  17. pmc Dynamic mapping at the laminar level of odor-elicited responses in rat olfactory bulb by functional MRI
    X Yang
    Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7715-20. 1998
    ..With further improvement, BOLD fMRI should be ideal for systematic analysis of the functional significance of individual glomeruli in olfactory information encoding and of spatiotemporal processing within the olfactory system...
  18. pmc Total neuroenergetics support localized brain activity: implications for the interpretation of fMRI
    Fahmeed Hyder
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10771-6. 2002
    ..The disregard of baseline activity in fMRI experiments by differencing removes a large and necessary component of the total activity. Implications of these results for understanding brain function and fMRI experiments are discussed...
  19. ncbi request reprint In vivo NMR studies of the glutamate neurotransmitter flux and neuroenergetics: implications for brain function
    Douglas L Rothman
    Magnetic Resonance Center for Research in Metabolism and Physiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 65:401-27. 2003
    ..Here we review and discuss the importance of neurotransmission and neuroenergetics as measured by (13)C MRS for understanding brain function and interpreting fMRI...
  20. ncbi request reprint Neuronal-glial glucose oxidation and glutamatergic-GABAergic function
    Fahmeed Hyder
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:865-77. 2006
    ..The relationship observed between DeltaCMR(glc(ox), N) and DeltaV(cyc(tot)) is determined by glial glycolytic ATP as before. Quantitative aspects of the model, which can be tested by experimentation, are discussed...
  21. pmc The contribution of GABA to glutamate/glutamine cycling and energy metabolism in the rat cortex in vivo
    Anant B Patel
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5588-93. 2005
    ..The contribution of GABAergic neurons and inhibition to cortical energy metabolism has broad implications for the interpretation of functional imaging signals...
  22. ncbi request reprint Coupling of glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal glucose oxidation over the entire range of cerebral cortex activity
    Anant B Patel
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1003:452-3. 2003
  23. ncbi request reprint Cerebral pyruvate carboxylase flux is unaltered during bicuculline-seizures
    Anant B Patel
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208043, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Neurosci Res 79:128-38. 2005
    ..2004b)...
  24. ncbi request reprint Energetic basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging
    Robert G Shulman
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Trends Neurosci 27:489-95. 2004
    ..MRS and fMRI experiments show that the majority of cerebral activity, which is often disregarded in imaging experiments, is ongoing even when the brain appears to be doing nothing...
  25. ncbi request reprint Glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal glucose oxidation are coupled during intense neuronal activation
    Anant B Patel
    Department of Psychiatry, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:972-85. 2004
    ..These results indicate that neuronal glucose oxidation and not total glucose utilization is coupled to the glutamate/glutamine cycle during intense cortical activation...
  26. pmc Cerebral energetics and spiking frequency: the neurophysiological basis of fMRI
    Arien J Smith
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10765-70. 2002
    ..Because DeltaCMR(O2)/CMR(O2) had the same high spatial and temporal resolutions of the fMRI signal, these results show how BOLD imaging, when converted to DeltaCMR(O2)/CMR(O2), responds to localized changes in neuronal spike frequency...
  27. pmc Metabolic and functional consequences of inhibiting adenosine deaminase during renal ischemia in rats
    M E Stromski
    Department of Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510
    J Clin Invest 82:1694-9. 1988
    ..Inhibition of adenosine deaminase during ischemia results in a injury similar to that seen after a shorter period of insult...
  28. ncbi request reprint Spectroscopic contributions to the understanding of hemoglobin function: implications for structural biology
    R G Shulman
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    IUBMB Life 51:351-7. 2001
    ..Rather, thermodynamic and kinetic data from a variety of spectroscopic studies have played the central role in establishing the MWC model for hemoglobin...
  29. pmc Protein phosphorylation can regulate metabolite concentrations rather than control flux: the example of glycogen synthase
    James R A Schafer
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1485-90. 2004
    ..The importance of this role for enzymatic phosphorylation to diabetes pathology is discussed, and its general applicability is suggested...
  30. pmc Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI
    F Xu
    Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurology, and Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:10601-6. 2000
    ..Whereas qualitative topographical agreement was observed with results from other methods, the current dynamic blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI results can provide quantitative SAPs of the entire OB...
  31. pmc "Willed action": a functional MRI study of the human prefrontal cortex during a sensorimotor task
    F Hyder
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:6989-94. 1997
    ..Similar modality linked activations can be observed in the original PET study but the greater resolution of the fMRI data makes the modality linkages more definite...
  32. pmc Energetics of neuronal signaling and fMRI activity
    Natasja J G Maandag
    Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20546-51. 2007
    ..We discuss implications for interpreting fMRI data where stimulus-specific DeltaCMR(O2) is generally small compared with baseline CMR(O2)...

Research Grants22

  1. NMR STUDIES OF METABOLISM AND REGULATION IN CELLS
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Once the contributions to saturation transfer of these individual exchange reactions have been identified, S.T. experiment will be conducted under various conditions to obtain kinetic information about yeast cellular metabolism...
  2. NMR STUDIES OF METABOLISM AND REGULATION IN CELLS
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Spectroscopic improvements in signal to noise and spectral localization will be developed for the rat brain on a 7.OT Biospec Spectrometer...
  3. ODOR MAPS IN OLFACTORY BULB BY FMRI
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The understanding of the odor-induced responses in the olfactory bulb to different chemicals holds promise for the eventual preventio and treatment of chemosensory disorders. ..
  4. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF RAT BRAIN BY IN VIVO NMR
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..A coherent study of brain activation, glucose and oxygen consumption and flux control by hexokinase is proposed that can be accomplished in the rat and will answer questions about the energetics of rat and human cerebral metabolism. ..
  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF RAT BRAIN BY IN VIVO NMR
    Robert Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition to testing the existing model, in which both neurons and glia participate, the research will investigate the role of glycogen, a molecule whose function has not previously been well understood. ..