Charles A Sanislow

Summary

Affiliation: Yale University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Treatment outcome of personality disorders
    C A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8038, USA
    Can J Psychiatry 43:237-50. 1998
  2. ncbi request reprint Correlates of suicide risk in juvenile detainees and adolescent inpatients
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:234-40. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Crisis intervention services in juvenile detention centers
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8098, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 54:107. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study
    Charles A Sanislow
    Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Am J Psychiatry 159:284-90. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Factor analysis of the DSM-III-R borderline personality disorder criteria in psychiatric inpatients
    C A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8038, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:1629-33. 2000
  6. doi request reprint Personality disorders predict relapse after remission from an episode of major depressive disorder: a 6-year prospective study
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 71:1629-35. 2010
  7. doi request reprint Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine
    J Abnorm Psychol 118:507-19. 2009
  8. pmc Two-year stability and change of schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:767-75. 2004
  9. pmc Two-year prospective naturalistic study of remission from major depressive disorder as a function of personality disorder comorbidity
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 73:78-85. 2005
  10. pmc Prospective assessment of treatment use by patients with personality disorders
    Donna S Bender
    Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 57:254-7. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Treatment outcome of personality disorders
    C A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8038, USA
    Can J Psychiatry 43:237-50. 1998
    ..To review the treatment outcome of personality disorders...
  2. ncbi request reprint Correlates of suicide risk in juvenile detainees and adolescent inpatients
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:234-40. 2003
    ..To compare correlates of risk for suicidal behavior in juvenile detainees with those in another high-risk group, adolescent psychiatric inpatients...
  3. ncbi request reprint Crisis intervention services in juvenile detention centers
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8098, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 54:107. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study
    Charles A Sanislow
    Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Am J Psychiatry 159:284-90. 2002
    ..This study tested the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder by using confirmatory methods for the analysis of covariance structures in a large group from a multisite study...
  5. ncbi request reprint Factor analysis of the DSM-III-R borderline personality disorder criteria in psychiatric inpatients
    C A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8038, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:1629-33. 2000
    ..The goal of this study was to examine the factor structure of the DSM-III-R criteria for borderline personality disorder in young adult psychiatric inpatients...
  6. doi request reprint Personality disorders predict relapse after remission from an episode of major depressive disorder: a 6-year prospective study
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 71:1629-35. 2010
    ..To examine prospectively the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to test for the moderating effects of personality disorder (PD) comorbidity on relapse after remission from an episode of MDD...
  7. doi request reprint Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
    Charles A Sanislow
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine
    J Abnorm Psychol 118:507-19. 2009
    ..The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders...
  8. pmc Two-year stability and change of schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:767-75. 2004
    ..Dimensionally, these findings suggest that PDs may be characterized by maladaptive trait constellations that are stable in their structure (individual differences) but can change in severity or expression over time...
  9. pmc Two-year prospective naturalistic study of remission from major depressive disorder as a function of personality disorder comorbidity
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 73:78-85. 2005
    ..These PDs emerged as robust predictors of slowed remission from MDD even when controlling for other negative prognostic predictors...
  10. pmc Prospective assessment of treatment use by patients with personality disorders
    Donna S Bender
    Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 57:254-7. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Charles A Sanislow
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8098, USA
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 105:28-36. 2002
    ..To test the diagnostic constructs implied by DSM-IV Axis-II personality disorders by examining relationships between different combinations of DSM-IV criteria...
  12. ncbi request reprint Do eating disorders co-occur with personality disorders? Comparison groups matter
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    Int J Eat Disord 33:155-64. 2003
    ..The eating disorders met criteria outlined in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)...
  13. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: a 2-year prospective study
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Can J Psychiatry 52:357-62. 2007
    ..To examine the longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Psychosocial impairment and treatment utilization by patients with borderline personality disorder, other personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, and a healthy comparison group
    Emily B Ansell
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 48:329-36. 2007
    ..The public health impact of BPD diagnosis is highlighted by the high rates of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric treatment utilization...
  15. ncbi request reprint Preliminary evidence for medication effects on functional abnormalities in the amygdala and anterior cingulate in bipolar disorder
    Hilary P Blumberg
    Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George Street, Suite 901, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:308-13. 2005
    ..Abnormal amygdala and frontocortical responses to emotional stimuli are implicated in bipolar disorder (BD) and have been proposed as potential treatment targets...
  16. ncbi request reprint Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study
    Shirley Yen
    Department of Psychiatry, Brown University Medical School, 700 Butler Drive, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 190:510-8. 2002
    ..In addition, they support an association between severity of PD and severity of traumatic exposure, as indicated by earlier trauma onset, trauma of an assaultive and personal nature, and more types of traumatic events...
  17. doi request reprint Comparing the temporal stability of self-report and interview assessed personality disorder
    Douglas B Samuel
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 120:670-80. 2011
    ..5% vs. 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology...
  18. pmc Natural course of bulimia nervosa and of eating disorder not otherwise specified: 5-year prospective study of remissions, relapses, and the effects of personality disorder psychopathology
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06519, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:738-46. 2007
    ..To examine prospectively the natural course of bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and to test for the effects of personality disorder psychopathology on remission and relapse...
  19. ncbi request reprint The natural course of bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified is not influenced by personality disorders
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    Int J Eat Disord 34:319-30. 2003
    ..To examine prospectively the natural course of bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and to test the effects of personality disorder (PD) comorbidity on the outcomes...
  20. ncbi request reprint Co-occurrence of DSM-IV personality disorders with borderline personality disorder
    Carlos M Grilo
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 301 Cedar Street, P O Box 208098, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 190:552-4. 2002
  21. pmc Can clinicians recognize DSM-IV personality disorders from five-factor model descriptions of patient cases?
    Benjamin M Rottman
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, P O Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 166:427-33. 2009
    ..Specifically, the authors sought to test whether FFM descriptors are specific enough to allow practicing clinicians to capture core features of personality disorders...
  22. pmc Can personality disorder experts recognize DSM-IV personality disorders from five-factor model descriptions of patient cases?
    Benjamin M Rottman
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 72:630-9. 2011
    ..Dimensional models of personality are under consideration for integration into the next Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but the clinical utility of such models is unclear...
  23. ncbi request reprint Representations of therapists by patients with personality disorders
    Donna S Bender
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY, USA
    Am J Psychother 57:219-36. 2003
    ..The importance of understanding the internal dynamics of patients' thoughts about their treatment relationship was underscored...
  24. pmc Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders
    Thomas H McGlashan
    Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:883-9. 2005
    ..This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years...
  25. ncbi request reprint Mental rubbernecking to negative information depends on task context
    Marcia K Johnson
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, P O Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 13:614-8. 2006
    ..How expectations might modulate the impact of emotional distraction is discussed...
  26. ncbi request reprint Perfectionism and depressive symptoms 3 years later: negative social interactions, avoidant coping, and perceived social support as mediators
    David M Dunkley
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8098, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 47:106-15. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional dysregulation
    Nelson H Donegan
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8098, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 54:1284-93. 2003
    ..We hypothesized that amygdala hyperreactivity contributes to hypervigilance, emotional dysregulation, and disturbed interpersonal relations in BPD...
  28. ncbi request reprint Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation
    Marcia K Johnson
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8205, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 5:339-61. 2005
    ..We suggest that refreshing accounts for some neural activity observed in more complex tasks, such as working memory, long-term memory, and problem solving, and that its disruption (e.g., from aging or emotion) could have a broad impact...
  29. pmc Beliefs about essences and the reality of mental disorders
    Woo kyoung Ahn
    Yale University, CT 06520, USA
    Psychol Sci 17:759-66. 2006
    ..Clinicians were polarized on their views about whether mental disorders are categorical or dimensional. These findings reflect current controversies about mental disorders in the field at large...
  30. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in borderline personality disorder: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Dawn M Johnson
    Summa Health System, St Thomas Hospital, Akron, OH 44310, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 44:284-92. 2003
    ..For example, no difference was found in rates of major depressive disorder, a condition that is more prevalent in females. Thus, BPD pathology may be a prevailing characterization that can attenuate usual gender-based distinctions...
  31. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal effects of personality disorders on psychosocial functioning of patients with major depressive disorder
    John C Markowitz
    Department of Personality Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:186-93. 2007
    ..This report describes the effects of persistent and remitting comorbid personality disorders on the depressive status and functioning of patients with major depressive disorder over the course of 2 years...
  32. ncbi request reprint Personality traits predict current and future functioning comparably for individuals with major depressive and personality disorders
    Christopher J Hopwood
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 195:266-9. 2007
    ..The data suggest that personality traits are significant and equally relevant predictors of functioning for both groups. The utility of assessing personality traits for individuals with both Axis I and II disorders is thus supported...
  33. ncbi request reprint Substance or style? An investigation of the NEO-PI-R validity scales
    Leslie C Morey
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 4235, USA
    J Pers Assess 79:583-99. 2002
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder revisited: longitudinal interactions
    John G Gunderson
    Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital, Boston, Mass 02478, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:1049-56. 2004
    ..This report investigates the longitudinal association of changes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder...
  35. ncbi request reprint Ethnicity and mental health treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders
    Donna S Bender
    Institute for Mental Health Research, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 75:992-9. 2007
    ..Future studies need to assess specific barriers to adequate and appropriate treatments for minority individuals with PDs...
  36. doi request reprint A comparison of interview and self-report methods for the assessment of borderline personality disorder criteria
    Christopher J Hopwood
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, USA
    Psychol Assess 20:81-5. 2008
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
    Andrew E Skodol
    Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Am J Psychiatry 159:276-83. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare psychosocial functioning in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and patients with major depressive disorder and no personality disorder...
  38. ncbi request reprint Descriptive and longitudinal observations on the relationship of borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder
    John G Gunderson
    McLean Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Belmont, MA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:1173-8. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Predictors of 2-year outcome for patients with borderline personality disorder
    John G Gunderson
    McLean Hospital, 155 Mill St, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:822-6. 2006
    ..The primary purpose of this report was to investigate whether characteristics of subjects with borderline personality disorder observed at baseline can predict variations in outcome at the 2-year follow-up...
  40. ncbi request reprint The longitudinal relationship of personality traits and disorders
    Megan B Warner
    Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77483, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 113:217-27. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Childhood maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study
    Cynthia L Battle
    Collaborative Longitudinal PDs Study CLPS, Brown University Medical School, USA
    J Pers Disord 18:193-211. 2004
    ..However, even when controlling for the effect of borderline PD, other PD diagnoses were associated with specific types of maltreatment...
  42. ncbi request reprint Borderline personality disorder criteria associated with prospectively observed suicidal behavior
    Shirley Yen
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, 700 Butler Drive, Duncan Building, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1296-8. 2004
    ..The authors prospectively examined associations between each DSM-IV borderline personality disorder criterion and suicidal behaviors...
  43. ncbi request reprint Temporal coherence of criteria for four personality disorders
    Leslie C Morey
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4235, USA
    J Pers Disord 18:394-8. 2004
    ..72 across 4 disorders), and reasonably specific to that syndrome relative to the other disorders. The results support the validity of these criterion sets as representing coherent syndromes...
  44. pmc Associations in the course of personality disorders and Axis I disorders over time
    M Tracie Shea
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Duncan Building, 700 Butler Drive, Providence, RI 20906, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 113:499-508. 2004
    ..Two of the four personality disorders under examination (STPD and OCPD) showed little or no association with Axis I disorders...
  45. ncbi request reprint Clinical features and impairment in women with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), BPD without PTSD, and other personality disorders with PTSD
    Caron Zlotnick
    Brown University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:706-13. 2003
    ..Consistent with other research, the findings suggest that PTSD does not appear to alter the central features of BPD. The clinical implications of our findings are considered...
  46. pmc Recent life events preceding suicide attempts in a personality disorder sample: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study
    Shirley Yen
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 73:99-105. 2005
    ..Therefore, certain types of negative life events are unique risk factors for imminent suicide attempts among individuals with PDs...
  47. ncbi request reprint Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders
    Leslie C Morey
    Psychology Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4235, USA
    Psychol Med 37:983-94. 2007
    ..The categorical classification system for personality disorder (PD) has been frequently criticized and several alternative dimensional models have been proposed...
  48. ncbi request reprint The representation of four personality disorders by the schedule for nonadaptive and adaptive personality dimensional model of personality
    Leslie C Morey
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4235, USA
    Psychol Assess 15:326-32. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the model appeared to successfully distinguish specific PDs, a property that represents a particular challenge for dimensional models of personality...
  49. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal comparison of depressive personality disorder and dysthymic disorder
    John C Markowitz
    New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 46:239-45. 2005
    ..The authors attempted to replicate findings of Klein and Shih in longitudinally followed patients with personality disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study...
  50. ncbi request reprint Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: relationships to functional impairment
    Andrew E Skodol
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, Box 129, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1919-25. 2005
    ..This study compared three-dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders and standard categories with respect to their associations with psychosocial functioning...
  51. pmc The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS): overview and implications
    Andrew E Skodol
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY 10032, USA
    J Pers Disord 19:487-504. 2005
    ..Taken together, our results lead us to hypothesize that PDs may be reconceptualized as hybrids of stable personality traits and intermittently expressed symptomatic behaviors...
  52. ncbi request reprint Differential impairment as an indicator of sex bias in DSM-IV criteria for four personality disorders
    Christina D Boggs
    Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, USA
    Psychol Assess 17:492-6. 2005
    ..The results suggest that most of the diagnostic criteria examined do not seem to display sex bias. However, those criteria that displayed evidence of bias came largely from the borderline diagnosis...
  53. pmc Axis I and axis II disorders as predictors of prospective suicide attempts: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study
    Shirley Yen
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 112:375-81. 2003
    ..Therefore, among individuals diagnosed with PDs. exacerbation of Axis I conditions, particularly MDD and substance use, heightens risk for a suicide attempt...
  54. ncbi request reprint Testing an APA practice guideline: symptom-targeted medication utilization for patients with borderline personality disorder
    John M Oldham
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA
    J Psychiatr Pract 10:156-61. 2004
    ....
  55. pmc Stability of functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder over two years
    Andrew E Skodol
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Psychol Med 35:443-51. 2005
    ....
  56. pmc Positive childhood experiences: resilience and recovery from personality disorder in early adulthood
    Andrew E Skodol
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:1102-8. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder...

Research Grants1

  1. Cognitive Control in Borderline & Trauma Psychopathology
    Charles Sanislow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Results will suggest methods to improve diagnosis and should provide leads for future efforts to identify treatment targets more specific than those in the current descriptive approaches. ..