J E Galan


Affiliation: Yale University
Country: USA


  1. Zhang Y, Lara Tejero M, Bewersdorf J, Galan J. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:6098-6103 pubmed publisher
    ..This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines. ..
  2. Monjarás Feria J, Lefebre M, Stierhof Y, Galán J, Wagner S. Role of autocleavage in the function of a type III secretion specificity switch protein in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. MBio. 2015;6:e01459-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may help develop inhibitors of type III secretion machines that offer novel therapeutic avenues to treat various infectious diseases. ..
  3. request reprint
    Galán J. Salmonella interactions with host cells: type III secretion at work. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2001;17:53-86 pubmed
    ..The study of this remarkable pathogen is not only illuminating general paradigms in microbial pathogenesis but is also providing valuable insight into host cell functions. ..
  4. Geiger T, Pazos M, Lara Tejero M, Vollmer W, Galan J. Peptidoglycan editing by a specific LD-transpeptidase controls the muramidase-dependent secretion of typhoid toxin. Nat Microbiol. 2018;3:1243-1254 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies describe a protein export mechanism that is probably conserved in other bacterial species. ..
  5. Sun H, Kamanova J, Lara Tejero M, Galan J. Salmonella stimulates pro-inflammatory signalling through p21-activated kinases bypassing innate immune receptors. Nat Microbiol. 2018;3:1122-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate the unique balance that emerges from host-pathogen co-evolution, in that pathogen-initiated responses that help pathogen replication are also important to prevent pathogen spread to deeper tissues. ..
  6. Galan J. Bacterial toxins and the immune system: show me the in vivo targets. J Exp Med. 2005;201:321-3 pubmed
    ..However, it remains to be established whether these activities are relevant during infection and whether these toxins have specifically evolved to disrupt the adaptive immune system. ..
  7. Song J, Wilhelm C, Wangdi T, Maira Litran T, Lee S, Raetz M, et al. Absence of TLR11 in Mice Does Not Confer Susceptibility to Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2016;164:827-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Kato J, Lefebre M, Galan J. Structural Features Reminiscent of ATP-Driven Protein Translocases Are Essential for the Function of a Type III Secretion-Associated ATPase. J Bacteriol. 2015;197:3007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Using modeling and structure and function analyses, we have identified structural features of one of these ATPases from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that help to explain important aspects of its function. ..
  9. Galan J, Waksman G. Protein-Injection Machines in Bacteria. Cell. 2018;172:1306-1318 pubmed publisher
    ..As many of the interactions shaped by these machines are of medical importance, they provide an opportunity to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat important human diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Galan J. Typhoid toxin provides a window into typhoid fever and the biology of Salmonella Typhi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:6338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of typhoid toxin not only has provided major insight into these questions but also has offered unique opportunities to develop novel therapeutic and prevention strategies to combat typhoid fever. ..
  2. Chang S, Song J, Galan J. Receptor-Mediated Sorting of Typhoid Toxin during Its Export from Salmonella Typhi-Infected Cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;20:682-689 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi mutant with impaired trafficking is not properly sorted into vesicles. These results reveal how the exotoxin of an intracellular pathogen engages host pathways for packaging and release. ..
  3. Fowler C, Chang S, Gao X, Geiger T, Stack G, Galan J. Emerging insights into the biology of typhoid toxin. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2017;35:70-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Further advances in understanding the biology of this toxin will help guide the development of badly needed diagnostics and therapeutic interventions that target this toxin to detect, prevent or treat typhoid fever. ..
  4. Fowler C, Galan J. Decoding a Salmonella Typhi Regulatory Network that Controls Typhoid Toxin Expression within Human Cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;23:65-76.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data describe a regulatory mechanism that allows a bacterial pathogen to exclusively express a virulence factor when located within a specific intracellular compartment. ..
  5. Gao B, Lara Tejero M, Lefebre M, Goodman A, Galan J. Novel components of the flagellar system in epsilonproteobacteria. MBio. 2014;5:e01349-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Spanò S, Gao X, Hannemann S, Lara Tejero M, Galán J. A Bacterial Pathogen Targets a Host Rab-Family GTPase Defense Pathway with a GAP. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that a cell-autonomous, Rab32-dependent host defense pathway plays a central role in the defense against vacuolar pathogens and describe a mechanism evolved by a bacterial pathogen to counter it. ..
  7. Deng L, Song J, Gao X, Wang J, Yu H, Chen X, et al. Host adaptation of a bacterial toxin from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2014;159:1290-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the molecular bases for Salmonella Typhi's host specificity and may help the development of therapies for typhoid fever. ..
  8. Hu B, Lara Tejero M, Kong Q, Galan J, Liu J. In Situ Molecular Architecture of the Salmonella Type III Secretion Machine. Cell. 2017;168:1065-1074.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide major insight into the structure and assembly of a broadly distributed protein secretion machine. ..
  9. Gao X, Deng L, Stack G, Yu H, Chen X, Naito Matsui Y, et al. Evolution of host adaptation in the Salmonella typhoid toxin. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2:1592-1599 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a remarkable example of a toxin evolving to broaden its enzymatic activities and adapt to a specific host. ..